3.1 Physical characteristics of seed
Analysis of variance (tableau 4) showed significant variation among varieties for seed characteristics including seed length (p<0.001), width (p<0.01), thickness (p<0.05), geometric mean diameter (p<0.01) and seed volume (p<0.01). Seed length varied between 9.3±0.48 mm and 13.51±2.52 mm, seed width varied between 6.19±0.38 and 9.4±1.71mm, thickness varied between 4.04±0.45mm and 4.65±0.32 mm, geometric mean diameter varied between 6.15±0.4 mm and 8.87±1.56 mm, seed volume ranged from 73.36±15.83 mm3 to 220.90±119.9 mm3. Variety AGS429 scored the highest values for most seed characteristics, while the variety Chinese Black exhibited the lowest values for most seed characteristics, except thickness where the variety Black Jet had the lowest (Table 5).
Table 4:ANOVA table of morphological of seeds
Table 5:Mean values of seed’ physical characteristics
3.2. Hedonic test
Analysis of variance of the hedonic scores showed highly significant variation among varieties for all tasting parameters (P<0.001) (table 6). There was also variation in gender perceptions (P<0.05, P<0.001) for all parameters except flavor (P>0.05) (table 6).
Table 6: ANOVA table for sensory parameters
The hedonic test showed differing perceptions among parameters for the varieties. Indeed, for men, variety Ashorowase had the best score for seed appearance (7.48), flavor (5.76), taste (8.25) and texture (8.2) (Fig.1a-d) while, for women variety AGS 466 had the best score for seed appearance (7.72) and taste (8.26), Ashorowase had the best score for seed flavor (5.96), and and texture (8.6) (Fig.1a-d).
For men, variety Early hakucho had the lowest score for seed appearance (3.8), Kuromame had the lowest score for flavor (4.92) and Maksoy 3N had the lowest score for the seed texture (5.68) and for taste (5.2), while for women variety Maksoy 3N had the lowest score for seed appearance (6.36), flavor (4.52), lowest texture (4.76) and taste (5.4) (Fig.1a-d).
Figure 1: Sex-disaggregated scores for seed appearance and flavor.
The sensory map (Figure 2) revealed that the genotypes AGS 466, Ashorowasse, AGS 472, AGS 429 and Black Jet were appreciated by more than 90% of the panelists. Genotypes Kuromame and Chinese Black were moderately appreciated by 55% and 50% respectively. The least preferred varieties were Early Hakucho and Maksoy 3N (less than 20%) (Figure 2).
Figure 2:Preference mapping for edamame varieties in Benin
As for the overall acceptability, variety AGS 466 received the best score among women, while Maksoy 3N was the most disliked. Among men, Ashorowase was the most appreciated while Early hakucho was the least accepted (Fig.3). Figure 4 showed the sensory characteristics determining the overall acceptability for a given gender group. It appeared that for women, seed appearance, taste and texture contributed equally to the general acceptability, while men based their choice only on taste and texture.
Figure 3:Radar graph showing a comparison of the overall acceptability scores of edamame varieties by gender.
Figure 4:Radar graph showing a comparison of the scores of sensory criteria determining the overall acceptability of edamame varieties by gender.
3.3. Descriptive analysis of sensory parameters of edamame
There was significant difference in scores received by descriptors among edamame varieties and panelists (table7). Highly significant difference (P < 0.001) was observed among varieties and panelists for all descriptors excepted beaniness. This implies that the panelists effectively distinguish the varieties based on the descriptors, however perceptions differ among panelists. The non-significance of repetition and repetition*variety across parameters, suggested that the panelists effectively evaluate the varieties in the same way regardless the day the seesion took place.
Table 7:AVOVA of sensory descriptors and of interactions
The test showed no significant difference among varieties for beaniness (fig. 5.a), which in average had low nuttiness(fig. 5.b). AGS 466, AGS 472, AGS 429, and Ashorowase were highly starchy, while Maksoy 3N and Early Hakucho were not starchy (Figure 5.c). The varieties Early Hakucho, Maksoy 3N, Black Jet and Chenese Black were characterized by high chewiness (test-value ≥ 2, p < 5%), whereas AGS 466, AGS 472, AGS 429, Ashorowase and Kuromame exhibited a very low chewiness (test-value < 2 , p < 0.05) (Figure 5.d). Ashorowase, Kuromame, AGS 466, AGS 429 and AGS 472 were the most sweet varieties, while Maksoy 3N and Early Hakucho were not sweet (Figure 4.e). Varieties Maksoy 3N and Early Hakucho had strong Aftertaste, while AGS 466, AGS 472, AGS 429, Ashorowase and Black Jet had no aftertaste (Figure 4.f).
Figure 5: Sensory profile of 10 edamame varieties: Beaniness; Chewiness; Nuttiness; Aftertaste; Sweetness; Starchy and Buttery. On the Y axis, V-computed from the V-test in comparison of the mean value of the sensorial parameter for a genotype to the overall mean.
Results of PCA revealed that 71% of the total variance was explained by the first two components. There was a strong relationship between varieties and sensory descriptors. Indeed, Early-hakucho and Maksoy 3N were located on the same side of the PCA axes as the sensory descriptors Chewiness, Olive green, small caliber and Aftertaste, which means that these three varieties were particularly discriminated by their chewiness, Olive green color, small seed caliber and Aftertaste characteristics. On the contrary, Ashorowase, AGS 466, AGS 472 and AGS 429 were mainly characterized by their sweet taste, butteriness, starchiness and their large size. In the same way, Chinese Black, Black Jet and Kuromame were characterized by Bottle green and Beaniness. Variety S1079-6-7 was mainly distinguished by medium caliber.
Figure 6:Principal component analysis (PCA) showing relationship between genotypes and sensory descriptor. Legend: Black texts indicate the genotypes while the blue texts indicate the sensory description
Correlation coefficients and significance between sensory descriptors and overall acceptability of edamame varieties were presented in table 8. Chewy texture of seed was positively and significantly correlated with small seed (p < 0.01) and negatively related to Sweetness (p < 0.05), Starchiness (p < 0.05) and Large seed (p < 0.05). This means that the Chewy varieties were varieties with non-large seeds, they were not sweet, and had less starch.
Sweet taste was significantly positively correlated with starchiness (p < 0.01) and large seed (p < 0.05), and negatively correlated to small seed (p < 0.001), olive green color (p < 0.05). The level of starch was significantly positively correlated with large seed (p < 0.05). It was negatively related to nutty flavor (p < 0.05), Aftertaste (p < 0.01), small seed (p < 0.01), and olive green (p < 0.01). Nutty flavor was significantly positively correlated with Aftertaste (p < 0.01), olive green (p < 0.01). It was negatively correlated with Bright green color (p < 0.05). Aftertaste was positively significantly correlated with small caliber (p < 0.05) and olive green (p < 0.001) (Table 8).
Overall acceptability of varieties was positively correlated with Sweetness (p < 0.01), level starchy (p < 0.001), large seed (p < 0.001) and Bright green color, and was negatively related to chewy texture (p < 0.05), nuttiness (p < 0.05), Aftertaste (p < 0.05), small seed (p < 0.01) and olive green color. This means that the varieties that possess chewy texture, nutty flavor, small seed and olive green color were not generally accepted (Table 8).
Table 8:Correlation between sensory descriptors for Overall acceptability
3.4. Willingness to adopt edamame consumption
Willingness to adopt edamame consumption varied among ethnic groups (X-squared = 205.94, df = 54, p < 0.000). On the contrary, there was no link between willingness to consume edamame and gender (X-squared = 14.405, df = 8, p-value = 0.072) or age groups (X-squared = 6.888, df = 4, p-value = 0.142).
The results of the FCA conducted to assess the willingness to adopt edamame consumption in relation to the ethnic groups showed that the first two axes explain 72.9% of the variations observed (Fig.7). The willingness to adopt edamame consumption varied among ethnic groups. In Fig. 7, Djerma ethnic group was located on the same side of the "reluctant" FCA axes, meaning that Djerma people were not yet ready to adopt edamame consumption. Aizo was on the same side as “Slightly willing”, which means that the Aizo people were willing but still had doubts. Goun ethnic group was closer to “Moderately willing”, Fon, Mahi and Adja were on the same side as “Very willing”, Dendi , Bariba and other ethnic groups were on the same side as “Extremely willing” which means Bariba, Dendi, Fon, Mahi and Adja were immediately ready to consume edamame.
Figure 7: Correspondence analysis (CA) showing the link between ethnic groups and their willingness to adopt edamame consumption. Blue text indicates the ethnic groups while the red text shows their willingness.
Overall, 90.11% of the respondents were willing to consume vegetable soybean and 4.94% were undecided while 4.95% were reluctant (Fig.8.)
Figure 8: Willingness to consume vegetable soybean
Several potential ways to process and consume edamame were proposed by the respondents (Fig.9). To this end, around 98% of the informants chose to consume edamame as an appetizer, 97% think consuming stir-fries edamame with rice is the best, while 95% prefer to consume edamame in salads, and 59.05% prefer to mix stir-fries edamame with spaghetti. Only few respondents choose edamame soups (25.64%), edamame mixe with maize (5.53%) and edamame mixed with peanuts 31%.
Figure 9:Possible forms of edamame processing and consumption