Addiction is one of the most ubiquitous psychological disorders (1). innumerable factors would ease drug dependence as one of the chief dilemmas of people`s lives. Apart from its noxious consequences, addiction is a mentally chronic and reversible disorder that is characterized by obsessive searching and using of drugs (2, 3). The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), defines substance use disorder as the conglomeration of cognitive, behavioral, and physiological symptoms that illustrate a person continues using drugs despite facing substance abuse-related problems (4). Addiction is one of the fundamental predicaments that affect the hygienic, psychological, and social aspects of our lives. It threatens public health, specifically those of youths (5). Addiction is a social problem that has been infiltrated in every corner of the globe (6). Nearly 162 to 324 million people worldwide have been affected by various types of substance abuse over the past 12 months (7). Nowadays, narcotism and drug abuse among youth have been on the rise. While exploring the matter of addiction, we should take this issue into consideration that individuals are not inexplicably and unexpectedly victimized the drug abuse; rather they are gradually entangled in the process of addiction and its dependency by developing predisposing potentialities (8). Even though far-reaching efforts have been made to control the addiction potential (AP) among individuals, drug abuse has increased markedly (9).
Addiction is not something that can be simply attributed to a certain group of people (10). Rather, it traverses through a wide range of professions, social classes, and students with different levels of education. The interplay of numerous factors can result in substance abuse and addiction (11). Until recently, considerable numbers of research have mainly targeted studying effects of addiction, determinative elements hastening the emergence of addiction and its prevention. Taking these issues into account, the AP theory states that some people, unlike others, are prone to addiction provided that some conditions are met (12). According to research’s, some of the prognosticating measures of addiction include social and cultural milieu, biological, interpersonal, and emotional-behavioral factors (13–15). As such, the main goal of the present study is to explore socio-psychological dynamics in the AP (16). Making voluntary functions (VF) is one of the major socio-psychological factors that can mitigate risky behaviors (17).
Volunteering is a type of activity through which a person freely devotes his/her time to the benefit of other people, groups, or even organizations (18–20). Volunteers contribute to some organizations in two ways including reducing costs that are exerted over organizations by law and lessening the amount of budget allotted to full-time employees (21). Both society and volunteers benefit from socially voluntary actions (22). Making voluntary actions and helping out others assist volunteers in relieving their stress, dealing with depression, keeping their minds fresh, and pursuing proper goals in their lives (23). The more people get engaged in voluntarism, the more opportunities they obtain to be benefited from (24–26). This justifies why some volunteers have been successful in obtaining status in both governmental and non-governmental organizations as human resources in the forms of employees, volunteers, and clients (27, 28).
Non-governmental organizations annually recruit some members and volunteers through drawing up both intra and extra-organizational agreements with the department of education for instance (29). To enlist new members, non-governmental organizations spend much money on organizing members, holding numerous workshops, and arranging recreational camps. Additionally, an abundant number of plans are made to facilitate cooperative activities (30). Getting involved in voluntary function help unpaid assistants to palliate the side effects of difficulties they are confronted on the path of doing service (17).
Seldom does volunteerism cause people to get engaged in anti-social behaviors. There is a positive correlation between volunteerism, personal, and social advantages (31). To do voluntary services, people need not show long-term commitments. Volunteers can benefit from volunteerism even if they commit for a limited number of hours per week (23). Satisfaction, happiness, and the promotion of health are among those advantages (32).
Therefore, the feelings of happiness and fulfillment, to a great extent, prevent volunteers from inclining to hazardous, anomalistic, and anti-social behaviors. It causes volunteers not to victimize others and do self-destructive deeds (33). On the other hand, the findings of some surveys have shown that stress, anxiety, depression, and a low level of fulfillment and emotional health would increase people`s tendency to resort to using addictive drugs (34, 35).
Unfortunately, despite the ceaseless efforts of experts, a clear-cut preventive method has not been discovered yet (36). One possible reason can be that addiction is a multi-dimensional phenomenon. It is influenced by biological and socio-psychological factors. Since addiction is one of the most contentious issues of today`s world, the present study is to explore the prognosticating role of VF in the AP among youths. On the other hand, it should be noted that previous studies have not explored the relationship between VF and AP among youth who have done VF in the Iranian Red Crescent Society (IRCS). Furthermore, less attention has been paid to the relationship between making VF and palliating anti-social behaviors. Thus, we have decided to discover whether there is any relationship between voluntarism and the AP. We also intend to understand whether voluntarism can prognosticate the AP.