Land, water, air, climate, and genetic resources must be appropriately utilized so that future generations can profit from them. Nature is necessary for both human existence and economic activity (Zingstra 2013). Natural capital, which includes natural resources, biodiversity, and ecosystem services, is the foundation of life on Earth and is critical to human survival (WWF 2020). When addressing the interaction of human and environmental activities, land use and land cover are dynamic changes that must be examined. Terrestrial and marine ecosystems, as well as their biodiversity, serve as the foundation for economic growth, sustainable development, and human well-being, with ecosystem services serving as an environmental imperative (Ecosyst. Restor. people, Nat. Clim. 2021). It is the life's pulsating heart. From an economic standpoint, the flow of ecosystem services may be viewed as the profits derived by civilization from natural capital (Gilvear et al. 2017). Maintaining a stock of natural capital provides for the sustainable delivery of future flows of ecosystem services, which aids in the survival of human well-being. Ecosystems provide a variety of services that benefit people, society, and the economy as a whole (Pascual et al. 2010). Water and wetlands provide several ecological services such as water provision, regulation, purification, and aquifer recharge. These services are critical for achieving water security goals and for water treatment for food security (Bongaarts 2019). Climate change (adaptation to climate and climate change mitigation), food security (providing crops and nurseries for fish farms), job security (maintenance of fish farms and soil quality for agriculture), and a variety of cultural benefits include knowledge (scientific and traditional), recreation, tourism, and the formation of cultural values, including identity and spirituality, all play important roles in food cycles (Sterrett 2011). Egyptian lakes are distinguished by a distinct and unique ecosystem, as they are an incubator for much aquatic life and fish wealth, as well as receiving huge flocks of waterfowl during their seasonal migrations, and if their fish production has declined, this is due to the severe pollution that has affected them, whether from industrial drainage, agricultural, and Egypt is distinguished by containing various types of lakes (N. F. Soliman and Yacout 2016). Salt lakes like Bardawil, Manzala, Burullus, Idku, and Mariout are among them, as are freshwater lakes like Nasser, Toshka, Qarun, and Wadi El Rayan, as well as industrial lakes like Al-Temsah and Port Fouad (Wed Abdel Latif and Busse 2012). A Naba lake may also be found in Wadi El-Natrun and Siwa in the Western Desert. Lake Burullus, one of the most significant lakes, is distinguished by an integrated ecosystem with distinct ecological traits and biological richness. On the lake, to a significant degree, either directly or indirectly. Lake Burullus is located to the northeast of Rashid Branch and spans roughly 70 Km in length and 6 to 17 Km in breadth (Hosam, Mohamad, and Mai 2017). Its present land size is around 70,000 acres. It is Egypt's second-largest natural lake. Lake Burullus is one of Egypt's oldest lakes, connected to the Mediterranean Sea by the Burullus Boughaz entrance and to the Nile by the Bermbal Canal, which was built in 1926 to provide the lake with ample Nile water and Nile fish. Lake Burullus, like the other northern lakes, faces numerous problems and threats that have resulted in an imbalance in its ecosystem, the most significant of which was the reduction of its area from 165,000 acres to less than 70,000 acres after nearly 60,000 acres were deducted and weeds and reeds were planted on approximately 25,000 acres (Younes and Nafea 2012). Acres and a decrease in water salinity as a result of the blockage of the Burullus sewage sludge, which connects it to the Mediterranean Sea and the Bermbal Canal, which resulted in the extinction of some types of fish and the spread of some exotic species, as well as the spread of reeds, which cover approximately 17% of the total water surface of the lake (Younes and Nafea 2012). The lake also faces a slew of other issues, such as shrinking area due to various encroachments. Addressing these issues and restoring the lake's functions as an integrated ecosystem necessitates the implementation of an action plan that includes the purification of the lake's current sulphur and the construction of a channel surrounding the lake to replenish the water and protect it from encroachment. It also necessitates the excavation of radial channels within the lake to reveal the vegetation cover (Romanelli, Cristina, Cooper, David, Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid, Maiero, Marina, Karesh, William B., Hunter, Danny, Golden 2015). Researchers are studying the construction of new gases to replenish the lake's water in order to expand the lake's fishing areas. Lake Burullus is important for ecological, economic, and social reasons, including the protection of agricultural lands in the lake area, the protection of fish farms and fish production, the provision of job opportunities and investments in fishing and animal production units, and water purification, where the lake plays an important role in removing harmful substances from wastewater because aquatic plants absorb a portion of the pollutants (Kaleem and Bio Singou Sabi 2020). It is also a haven for migratory birds and aids in mitigating the effects of rising sea levels. Failure to maintain the lake will result in losses equal to the value of the expected damages if the lake's problems are not addressed. The study aimed to evaluate LU/LC change in Burullus Lake over four decades; 2009, 2013, 2018 and 2028, also to describe the impact of this change on ESV.