Based on an innovative high-speed railway simply supported bridge (HSRSSB) model, this paper conducts the investigation of potential influence of near-fault pulse-type ground motions on a 49-span HSRSSB. To obtain target conclusion, 85 original records of near-fault pulse-type ground motions are collected and are imposed on the simulation model as excitation, dynamic responses including girder displacement, rail displacement, pier moment, bearing deformation, and residual displacement are gathered as well. Linear regression analysis reveals the relationship between dynamic response results mentioned above and intensity measures (IMs). Moreover, 6 typical ground motions are chosen from the 85 records as prototype for pulse parameter analysis. Through the artificial ground motions synthesis, the effects of parameters consisted with pulse amplitude, pulse period, and pulse number on HSRSSB are investigated and discussed. It is concluded that responses of HSRSSB are sensitive to acceleration-type IMs and have the strongest linear relationship with spectral IMs at fundamental period of structure. For pulse parameter, the HSRSSB dynamic responses show positive correlation relationship with pulse amplitude, but negative correlation with pulse period.