Nanotechnology offers enormous promise for harvesting solar energy effectively utilizing photovoltaic (PV) cells. Furthermore, nanotechnology has grown as a multidisciplinary discipline, with rising importance in several fields of engineering. When inorganic cells are doped with silicon and organic cells with polymer, nano particles (NPs) operate as semi-conductive components in PV cells (Khan, Rahman et al. 2021). Polymeric materials (PMs) are utilized to replace traditional materials because they are light in weight, inexpensive, and have superior physio-chemical qualities (Mohammed, Khafagy et al. 2021). Significant attempts have been made to build diverse NCs in order to grasp their underlying principles in numerous domains of engineering (Ferrone, Araneo et al. 2019).
Characteristics (such as electrical, optical, structural, and mechanical) of PMs may be effectively adjusted by adding tiny quantities of nano fillers into polymer matrices (Manikandan, Imran et al. 2019). Because of its diverse features, ZnO NPs are employed in a variety of applications, including UV absorption and photoelectronic devices. Doping of ZnO NPs into a basic polymer matrix has shown to be quite useful in measuring the physical characteristics of PCMs (Ramadan 2018). These NPs appear to create a compound with the polymer chain, improving the physical characteristics of the Polymeric Composite Materials (PCMs).
In recent years, PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) has been employed as a simple polymer with specialized features such as strong stability, bio-degradability, environmental stability, optical and electrical properties. The presence of crystalline and amorphous zones, which causes concentric amorphous-crystal effects to boost physical properties, is a crucial property of PVA's semi-crystalline nature (Lou, Osemwegie et al. 2020).
Organic materials, especially semiconducting polymeric materials, have been used as light absorbers in the third generation of OSCs, which have been used to create solution-treated solar cells (Leong, Wang et al. 2022). Third-generation OSCs primarily need the usage of PCMs, which provide cheaper production costs as well as increased performance. NCs have been increasingly used in assembly of 3rd generation OSCs, i.e., thin film OSCs, to increase the harvesting of solar energy (Srivastava 2017). The environmental stability, conductivity, and optical absorption of the NCs are the most important criteria for determining the material's feasibility for solar energy utilization.
PCMs are gaining popularity in optoelectronics. ZnO NCs have piqued the interest of many researchers due to their wide range of applications (Sangwan, Malik et al. 2021). The addition of ZnO NPs to PVA structures can change its electrical, optical, and mechanical attributes of polymers. A multitude of processes are used to create polymers based NCs (Khan, Zain et al. 2021). Each approach has its own distinct features. However, regardless of approach, the major emphasis of all PCMs is on final morphology (VG and Augustine M 2011), which is dependent on interactions between PCMs that enable excellent dispersion of NPs in polymer matrix (Wu, Zhang et al. 2021).
The Solution Casting Approach (SCA) is an ancient approach for development the PCMs films that was chosen because of its simple processes for the fabrication of ZnO embedded PVA NCs thin films with regular thickness. Because of its numerous optoelectronic applications, the physical characteristics of ZnO-PVA NCs are crucial (Srivastava 2016).
The optical and electrical attributes of PVA matrix were tailored by addition of ZnO nano fillers, and this idea was taken from a published research study (Khan, Zain et al. 2021). Although reports have shown that ZnO-PVA NCs film has the potential to be employed in optoelectronics, but research studies on application of ZnO-PVA NCs films in OSCs has not been published in details. As a result, some attempts have been engaged in current study to demonstrate the performance efficacy of ZnO embedded PVA NCs films for improvement. Carbon (CF), Epoxy Resin (ER), CuO Layer and ZnO Layer were used to make the OSCs. The impact of adding the self-developed ZnO-PVA NCs films on efficiency of an OSCs with internal structure [CF)/(ZnO/ER)/(CuO/ER)/CF] was investigated.