Background: Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (Morquio syndrome A, MPS IVA) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused due to biallelic variants in the N-acetylgalactoseamine-6-sulfatase (GALNS) gene. The mutation spectrum in this condition is determined amongst sub-populations belonging to the north, south and east India geography, however, sub-populations of west Indian origin, especially Gujarati-Indians, are yet to be studied. We aimed to analyse the variants present in the GLANS gene amongst the population of Gujarat by sequencing all exons and exon-intron boundaries of the GALNS gene in patients from 23 unrelated families.
Results: We report 11 variants that include eight missense variants: (p.L36R, p.D39G, p.P77R, p.C79R, pP125L, p.P151L, p.G255A and p.L350P), one splice site variant: (c.121-7C>G), one small insertion: (c.1241_1242insA, p.I416HfsTer2) and one small deletion: (c.839_41delACA). Of these, three missense variants (p.D39G, p.G255A and p.L350P), one splice site and the two indels mentioned above are novel. Interestingly, we observed a higher than anticipated prevalence of p.P77R variant in our cohort (n=14/25, 56%). Haplotype analysis in cases with p.P77R variant and 63 ethnicity matched healthy population controls suggested a 4 SNP haplotype block present in cases compared to controls (likelihood ratio test p-value= 1.16 x 10-13), thereby suggesting p.P77R variant as a founder variant in the Gujarati Indian population. Furthermore, age of mutation analysis suggested the variant to have arisen approximately 450 years ago in the population.
Conclusion: p.P77R variant in the GLANS gene is likely to be a founder variant in MPS IVA patients of Gujarati-Indian ancestry and appeared approximately 450 years ago in the population. To our knowledge, this the first variant to be posited as a founder variant in the GLANS gene in patients with MPS IVA syndrome.