Reducing the bioavailability of Pb in soil is the key to alleviate the toxicity of Pb to plant. Maize were exposed to Pb 100 mg/kg of soil with three fertilizer levels of control (T1), nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium of 204 mg/kg (T2) and nitrogen, potassium of 204 mg/kg (T3). The phosphate supplement lead to the reduction by 24.92%, 29.73% and 25.31% respectively in activity of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), peroxidase (POD) and concentration of lipid peroxidation (MDA) in maize leaves, and reduced Pb accumulation in above- and below-ground biomass of maize by 39.20% and 37.58%. In T2 treatment group, the water soluble Pb, ionic fraction and carbonate fraction Pb in rhizosphere soil decreased by 37.57%, 36.36% and 43.24%, and organic fraction Pb and residual fraction Pb was the highest with the value of 11.67 and 18.57 mg/kg; the soil aluminum bound (Al-P) and iron bound phosphate (Fe-P) were the highest with 93.53 mg/kg and 230.32 mg/kg, indicating that the phosphate supplement increases the soil ionic P and transforms the chemically mobilized P (such as O-P, Ca-P) into the bioavailable P. Moreover, the soil organic fraction and residual fraction immobilized Pb was positively correlated with the bioavailable Al-P and Fe-P, indicating that the ionic fraction P (Al-P and Fe-P) react with Pb and produce residual P-Pb compounds. Therefore, phosphate supplement to Pb contaminated soil could transfer unstable fraction Pb into stable fraction Pb by P-induced Pb immobilization, reduce the bioavailability of Pb and alleviate the toxicity of heavy metal to plant.