A metabolic syndrome is a group of metabolic abnormalities which includes central obesity, elevated blood pressures, elevated triglycerides, decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and hyperglycemia (1). It increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disorder and stroke by three to ten times and the risk of diabetic Mellitus by tenfold (2). The new international diabetes federation (IDF) defines metabolic syndrome as central obesity (defined by waist circumference) plus any two of the four risk factors: low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, raised triglyceride, raised blood pressure, and/or raised fasting plasma glucose level (3).
Metabolic syndrome is a complex disorder that leads type 2 diabetes patients and cardiovascular disease (CVD) to be a twin global epidemic problem (3). Globally, 20–25% of the adult population and 70–80% of diabetes mellitus (DM) patients are estimated to have metabolic syndrome (4).
Metabolic syndrome is becoming a worldwide public health concern due to lifestyle changes, urbanization, decreasing levels of physical activity, increased intake of energy, and globalization (3–5). Metabolic syndrome among type 2 DM patients is a common condition in developed and developing countries. Its magnitude was 24% in Europe, 32% in the UK, 68.6% in Gahanna, 68.7%, and Nigeria (6–8). The pooled prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa was reported at 59.62% where the highest prevalence is observed in Ethiopia (61.1%) (5–10). Similarly, the magnitude varies in different parts of Ethiopia, 51.1% in north Ethiopia, 45.9% in southern Ethiopia Hawassa, 57% in North West Ethiopia Gondar (5, 11, 12).
Among all diabetic type two individuals, 80% also had metabolic syndrome (13). It is thought to be a driver of the modern-day epidemics of diabetes and cardiovascular disorder and has become a major public health challenge around the world (14) (1). In Africa, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome ranges from 17–25% (9). Metabolic syndrome increases the risk of developing non-communicable diseases, and the cost of treatment for non-communicable diseases. It will increase the economic burden of hypertension and other non-communicable diseases by 59–179% by 2020 (15). We can decrease and prevent it by simple lifestyle modifications like weight reduction and using an anti-atherogenic diet (15).
The metabolic syndrome is known to be caused by insulin resistance or insulin resistancelinked obesity, a condition whereby the body’s cells are incapable of taking up glucose from the blood. Insulin resistancelinked to obesity is caused by a lack of regular exercise and poor dieting. Increasing age, smoking of cigarettes, alcohol intake, overweight, sedentary lifestyle, and family history of type 2 diabetes are also important risk factors (16).
Dietary changes, physical inactivity, rural to urban migration, industrial development, and genetic susceptibility are playing a substantial role in the spread of metabolic syndrome (Mets). Low HDL-C is the most prominent component of metabolic syndrome and females have an increased risk to develop metabolic syndrome in Ethiopia (12, 14, 17). Studies reported that Being female, consumption of red meat, sedentary leisure time activity, coffee intake, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, increased age, self-employment, completion of secondary school and above, having diabetes for over 5 years and poor glycemic control, physical inactivity, inadequate intake of fruits, family history, overweight, and obesity (12, 16, 18–20).
The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is growing at an alarming rate in developing countries including Ethiopia. Ethiopia has a very weak health system to control the NCDs which also have a high burden of communicable disease. Since its diagnosis and treatment are too expensive, more focus should be given to the upstream risk factors of metabolic syndrome. Even though studies are done to determine the prevalence and factors for metabolic syndrome, most of the studies conducted were a snapshot and subjected to design limitations. So that this case-control study was designed to determine the determinants of metabolic syndrome in southern Ethiopia.