Basic life support is the provision of initial care for an illness or injury, usually by any nearby (bystander) person, until medical treatment can be accessed (Kleinman et al. 2017). Early recognition and activation of Emergency medical service (EMS) and early bystander BLS are the most important factors determining the survival probabilities in participants; this in turn depends entirely on the knowledge and actions of the bystanders (Arbon et al. 2011).
In agreement to our study, Rajashekar et al. India showed that there is a lack of knowledge about basic life support among health care professionals (Rajashekar and Anthony 2018).
In agreement with our results, Amira. et al. revealed that all the studied hospital and primary health care nurses had positive attitude towards Cardiopulmonary resuscitation including attitude of CPR related to nursing role, CPR training, CPR guideline and attitude towards CPR practice (Nasri and Bulushi 2020). In contrary with our study, Ogundele. et al. revealed that 60.5% of the participating HCPs had positive attitude towards cardio-pulmonary resuscitation and 39.5% had negative attitude (Ogundele 2020).
Similar to our results, Kelkay et al.in Ethiopia revealed that there was a statistically significant association between age of the studied nurses and levels of knowledge as participants below 40 years old had more knowledge than ages above (Kelkay et al. 2018).
On the contrary Mekonnen and Muhye, in Ethiopia revealed that being in the age of 30–40 years was 50% more to have good knowledge about basic life support. Whereas, being in the age of > 40 years was 2.45 times more knowledgeable as compared with its counterpart. The possible explanation might be due to the fact that as age increase and recurrent training, the awareness and exposure also increase (Mekonnen and Muhye 2020).
In agreement to our study, Saquib et.al.in Saudi Arabia, revealed that statistically, a significant difference was observed while comparing awareness among healthcare interns of different faculties. Highest awareness was present in the medical interns (2.94 ± 1.03) followed by nursing (2.74 ± 1.07), pharmacy (2.64 ± 0.91) and lastly the dental interns (2.59 ± 1.11) respectively. The possible reason could be the presence of an emergency course as a part of the medical school curriculum (Saquib et al. 2019).
In our study we found that there was no significant association between BLS knowledge level and years in practice of the participants. In agreement with our results, García.et al. in Spain showed no significant association between BLS knowledge level and years in practice among the studied medical personnel (Sánchez García et al. 2015).
In contrary to our results, Mersha, et al. in Ethiopia revealed that health professionals who had greater than 5 years of work experience were 5.02 times more likely to have good knowledge than health professionals who had less than 2 years of work experience and work experience has a strong association with participants’ knowledge towards CPR (Mersha et al. 2020).
In agreement to our results, Kelkay et al. in Ethiopia reported that nurses who were previously exposed and performed BLS had 10:11 times more likelihood of scoring better knowledge than those who were not exposed. Other studies also reported that taking CPR training results in health professionals having good knowledge about CPR (Ilyas et al.2014; Roshana et al. 2012). This might be because health professionals who had taken regular CPR training acquired up-to- date information about CPR and there was no fade in knowledge, and as a result they had good knowledge of CPR.
Our study revealed that, there was a statistically significant relation between level of knowledge and attitude towards BLS. In agreement to our study, Mersha, et al. in Ethiopia, revealed that, health professionals who read CPR guidelines (good knowledge) were 2.80 times more likely to have positive attitude than those who did not read CPR guidelines (Mersha et al. 2020).
In agreement to our results, Mbada. et al. in Nigerian stated that practice of CPR in Nigeria is still largely within the sphere of the medical profession, unlike in the developed countries where the school pupils and the general public are taught and expected to be competent in CPR methods (Mbada et al. 2013).
Our study revealed a statistically non-significant association between BLS practice level and previous training course about BLS or years in practice. On contrary to our results Kelkay et al. in Ethiopia, showed that nurses who were previously exposed to cardiac patient practice much better than those who were not exposed (Kelkay et al. 2018).
In agreement to our study, Papi, et al. in Iran, revealed that there was a significant relationship between staff knowledge and skills and the correct use of the automated external defibrillator device (Papi et al. 2020). On the contrary, Ogundele. et al. in Nigeria, showed that there is a significant relationship between healthcare workers’ attitude towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation and level of skills (Ogundele 2020).
Moreover, in our study we revealed that the total score of knowledge and job categories were considered significant predictors for practice toward BLS among the studied primary HCPs with an effect 42.7%. In agreement to our study Iserbyt et al. in Belgium revealed that significant predictors for a higher BLS/AED performance were recent certification, little time on duty per year, and practicing BLS skills; as Lifeguards who self-reported a very bad knowledge and skill concerning BLS/AED performed worse than those who reported to be very good (Iserbyt et al. 2015). The assessment of BLS practices was self-reported by participants and not through observational checklist by researchers, this was limitation of this study.