A summary of previous studies on PICC's self-management ability is shown in Table 5.
3.1.1 The younger the age, the better the PICC self-management ability
The effect of age on self-management ability has also been verified in patients with other diseases.  The older the patients are, the worse the ability of self-management is. This is because with the increase of age, the learning ability of patients decreases and their physical function becomes worse, which affects their mastery of self-management-related knowledge and skills.  In this work, the score of patients' self-management ability decreased with the increase of age, and is in a stable state after the age of 50. The weakening of this ability is directly related to age. In the process of health education for patients with PICC catheter, nurses should formulate differentiated programs according to different ages to improve the ability of the elderly to understand the relevant information.
3.2.2 The higher the level of education, the better the PICC self-management ability
The results implicit that there is a positive correlation between education level and self-management ability of patients with PICC catheter(P<0.01). The reasons are as follows: first of all, patients with higher educational level have stronger ability to learn and understand, and will deeply realize the importance of good self-management behavior in the whole process of treatment. when you find your own problems are abnormal, you can take timely and positive measures, so as to reduce the incidence of complications. 
Secondly, patients with a relatively high level of education can learn the relevant knowledge of PICC catheterization through a variety of ways, rather than simply through the path of "hospitals and nurses". This multi-way knowledge acquisition way helps to expand the scope of knowledge acquisition. From the results of the survey, nurses should pay special attention to those patients with relatively low level of education in education, and use a variety of ways to improve their understanding of relevant knowledge and deepen patients' understanding of knowledge. 
3.2.3 With long-term caregivers, PICC self-management ability is relatively better
The existence of long-term caregivers had a significant impact on patients' self-management ability, and there is a positive correlation between them (P < 0.01). An experienced and qualified long-term caregiver is of great significance to patients. , because caregivers will strictly supervise the behavior of patients, this strengthens the maintenance of patients' PICC catheters. For those patients with mobility difficulties, the meticulous assistance provided by caregivers will significantly enhance the patients' self-confidence and self-management ability. Therefore, the existence of long-term caregivers has created a positive effect on improving patients' self-management behavior and compliance. Therefore, for those patients who do not have long-term caregivers, under the premise of strengthening their health education, more family members should be encouraged to participate and help patients manage the catheter. In addition, nurses also need to strengthen the follow-up and follow-up of such patients to ensure that there is a close relationship with patients, keep abreast of the actual situation of patients and provide routine care for patients.
3.2.4 The higher the monthly income per capita, the better the PICC self-management ability
There are also some differences in the self-management ability of patients with different income (P < 0.01). The self-management ability of patients improved with the increase of income. For low-income groups, they are usually unable to afford the follow-up maintenance costs of PICC tube placement, which directly results in the low self-management ability of PICC tube placement in this part of the population. Specifically, patients with higher income usually have higher cultural literacy, they can fully master the methods of catheter maintenance; secondly, the level of income will also have a certain impact on the mental state of patients. For those patients with relatively high income, they are usually more optimistic and positive, have a strong health responsibility, but also have a higher economic base, which is conducive to patients to choose healthier forms and self-management activities. In Maslow's theory of demand, high-income people have better self-management behavior and a higher quality of life. Patients with better economic conditions can obtain effective information more quickly and achieve higher-level pursuit while meeting their daily needs. 
3.2.5 Payment method is an important factor that affects the scores of patients' self-management ability
It is reported that for patients who pay at their own expense or have low-grade insurance, or who have no reimbursement or relatively small amount of reimbursement, they usually do not pay attention to the self-care of the catheter in order to reduce the financial burden. The score of self-management ability of patients who adopt the payment method of medical insurance is higher than that of new farmers' cooperation.  The main reason is that the patients who pay for health insurance usually live in cities and towns, and the reimbursement proportion is relatively high, while the NCMS patients mainly live in rural areas and the reimbursement proportion is low. This difference in cost leads to the relatively low score of self-management ability of many NCMS patients, which may be directly related to their relatively poor economic conditions and low level of education. The difference in the form of payment will also lead to differences in patients' self-management ability, for patients with self-expense or NCMS insurance, the amount of reimbursement is less, or there is no reimbursement. As a result, they spend little energy on catheter maintenance in order to reduce positive stress, which eventually leads to complications.
3.6 Place of residence affects self-management ability of patients with PICC catheter
Previous studies have shown that residence is one of the important factors affecting the self-management ability of tumor patients with PICC . Patients living in different areas have certain differences in PICC self-management ability (P<0.01). The self-management ability of patients living in rural and urban areas is lower than that of patients living in urban areas, among which patients living in rural areas have the worst self-care ability, and patients living in urban areas have the highest score. This is directly related to the regionalization of medical resources in China. A large number of high-quality treatment resources are concentrated in the urban area, and patients enjoy relatively good economic conditions, so it is easier for them to obtain the information of PICC catheterization and to maintain the catheter.
3.7 PICC patients with religious beliefs can have stronger self-management.
Compared with patients without religious belief, patients with religious belief have stronger self-management ability, which proves that mental health has a certain impact on physical health. Patients who believe in religion usually have a more positive mental state. Religion not only supports their spirit, but also enables them to face it more tenaciously and gain the courage to live in the face of illness and pain, which contributes to the faster recovery of the disease.
3.8 Occupational nature affects the self-management ability of patients with PICC catheter
The results suggest that the self-management ability of PICC catheterization is relatively weak in patients with manual labor as an occupation, while the score of self-management ability in patients with mental work is higher. The reason for the difference in the score of self-management ability between the patients of two different occupations is that manual workers lack the necessary understanding of catheter maintenance and management, because their cultural quality is usually lower than that of mental workers. Secondly, there is a lack of protective measures for the work of manual workers. This makes it difficult for them to implement their daily self-management. To make matters worse, manual workers should often do some physical activities, which is prone to the problem of returning blood to the catheter. If it is not treated in time, the catheter will be blocked. In addition, sweat impregnation of manual workers will often cause crimping and shedding of the film, and the return of blood from the catheter and the shedding of the film will easily lead to complications if they are not effectively dealt with  .This also explains why manual workers have a higher frequency of daily self-management and observation than mental workers. This indirectly implies that nurses should focus on explaining the activity of the arm on the side of catheterization to patients in the process of education, pay attention to teaching patients how to observe catheters, guide patients to find complications in time, and take effective measures to deal with them.
3.9 There is a positive correlation between social support and healthy behaviors
Social support refers to the material and spiritual support and help given by others or organizations, or the degree of individual utilization of social support, which includes three different dimensions: objective support, subjective support and support utilization. Studies have shown that the social support scores of patients with PICC catheter are in the middle level. The total score of social support is positively correlated with patients' self-management ability, catheter observation, abnormal situation management, information acquisition and catheter management information (P < 0.05). Objective support is positively correlated with self-management ability, catheter observation and abnormal situation management (P < 0.05). There is a positive correlation between subjective support and self-management ability, catheter observation, abnormal situation management and information acquisition (P < 0.05). Support utilization is positively correlated with self-management ability, catheter observation, abnormal situation management, information acquisition and catheter management information (P < 0.05). Studies have confirmed that social support can have an impact on individual self-esteem and encourage individuals to adopt healthier behaviors. Social support promotes patients to build healthy behavior, improve patients' compliance with treatment, and then improve patients' quality of life, which is positively related to healthy behavior.