The findings of the current study reveal the relationship between IPV and FP use among married women in Mara region. The impact of IPV on FP use has been reported to be diverse including unintended pregnancies, low use of FP methods, social effects and poor health outcomes including HIV infection (15, 16). Additionally, IPV has effect on physical and psychosocial health outcome (17).
In the current study, the overall prevalence of IPV among married women in the region was 73.2% with physical, psychological and sexual forms of IPV having prevalence of 54.1%, 36.3% and 25.4% respectively. The prevalence of IPV in the present study is higher compared to that reported in other studies such as Egypt with IPV prevalence was 29.4% with 26.7% physical, 17.8% psychological and 4.6% sexual violence (18), Nepal overall IPV psychological, physical and sexual violence was 18.3 %, 15.2 % and 2.3 % respectively among married women (19). In another study conducted in six regions of Tanzania the overall IPV prevalence among married women was 65% with 34% emotional, 21% sexual and 18% physical (16).
The findings regarding the different forms of IPV in our study, their prevalence was lower as compared to that reported in Bangladesh in which the prevalence for psychological, sexual and physical forms of violence’s was 77.2%, 58.8% and 44.4% respectively (20). These variation of findings observed in the prevalence of IPV, could be contributed by many factors, for example having outside sexual partners, alcohol use, early marriage, cohabiting, attitudes of supportive wife beating, experiencing childhood abuse, growing up with domestic violence and experiencing forms of violence in adulthood were mentioned to increase the risk of IPV practice (21). Likewise, women residing in
urban areas (OR = 1.149, 95% CI = [1.046, 1.262]), having only a primary level education (OR = 1.756, 95% CI = [1.543, 1.999]), being followers of Islam (OR = 1.713, 95% CI = [1.379, 2.126]), and having husbands with no education (OR = 1.422, 95% CI = [1.263, 1.601]) were reported factors of IPV (18).
The overall prevalence of FP use among married women in Mara region was 62.02% and its trends of modern FP use was 47.8% in 2019 and 35.5% from January to March 2020. The current result is higher compared to prevalence of FP use reported in the study conducted in Ghana 21% (22), in 17 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa 17% (23), in rural Northeastern Nigeria 26% (24), in Kenya 54% Mochache et al. (25), in Ghana and Ethiopia 34.3%, 31.7% respectively (26, 27) in Pakistan 34% (28). However, the current study prevalence of FP use achieved is above the national target of 60% by 2020 (13).
The prevalence of FP use in our study was low compared to reported prevalence from other studies 80.3%, 75%, 73.8% and 73.9% in United kingdom, Brazil, Uruguay and Ethiopia respectively (1, 29). Partner’s lower level of education, preference to have children in the future, less number of live children and husband’s approval were cited as reasons for not utilizing modern family planning (30). The low use of FP was also reported to be associated with discouragement from an intimate partner and closest friends (31). Another study conducted in 29 low and middle income countries reported similar finding that women’s experienced IPV was associated with increased OR of having an unintended pregnancy (95% CI 1.25 to 1.34) (32).
The findings in the current study revealed that commonly modern FP practiced methods among married women were injectable 49.1%, implants 28.6%, oral pills 24.6%, other methods 16.6%, male condom 6.9%, IUD 6.3%, female sterilization 3%, male’s sterilization 0.6% and female condom being unutilized 0.00%. The probably reasons of married women preferring these methods is because have no evidence and this may be accompanied with intimate partner violence existing in male partners living in Mara region and limits married women to practice the preferred FP methods.
Our study findings are similar to the findings reported in a study conducted in Ethiopia on predictors of modern family planning use among married women and revealed that injectable 60.3% was the most common method utilized (33). However, a study done in India on family planning use among married women found that, female sterilization 45.6% was the common method utilized followed by IUD 23%, condom 22% and oral pill 9.2% being the least (34). Moreover, a study done in India assessed knowledge, attitude and practice of FP methods and found that 53% of married women had used family planning methods with IUD 46% highly utilized, condom 22% and 11% oral pill accounts lowest (35). The probably reason of most married women in the current study using injectable method of FP could be associated with IPV, since this method can be used with less detection and it is given on one occasion after every three months, which could explain the confidentiality to partners (36). Likewise, low use of condom as a FP method could be due to husband disagreement and poor women autonomy in making decision regarding use of FP (22, 36).
The findings of current study revealed that barriers of using modern family planning were fear health related side effects from using modern FP methods, husband opposition, family members opposition, cultural and religious factors. These barriers are also reported from different studies, such as Nigeria and Congo revealed that, fear of FP side effects, religious, culture, desire many children, opposition from husband and family members and expense for FP services were common barriers limiting married women to utilize modern FP methods (37, 38). Similarly the study conducted in Tanzania found that myths and misconceptions, fear of side effects and fear of the possibility of being pregnant during counselling period on FP use were barriers of using FP methods (31). Furthermore, a study done in Ethiopia had highlighted that, age, women’ education level, power of decision making and monthly income were the positive predictors associated with modern FP use (33). These dissimilarities observed from different studies may be associated with different sociodemographic factors of the respondents for example women having good knowledge about the method of family planning was significantly associated.
We found that physical and psychological abuse were a significant factor associated with low modern FP use among married women. The reason of low utilization of FP use might be due to male dominance that husbands control their wives and don’t allow their wives to use modern FP, and also, husbands might do it intentionally because they need more children. The study results is consistent with a study done in Egypt assessed the effects of married women’s autonomy on utilization of modern FP methods revealed that, married women who are under the control of male partners are also limited to access modern FP (39). These findings are contrasted with a study done in England and South Asia, which reported that, there is no relationship between married women experienced IPV and modern FP use (40, 41). The similar findings of no association between IPV and modern FP use were also reported from a study done in Uganda (Kidman & Bertrand, 2015; Wandera, et al, 2018). This findings are contracted with a study done in Tanzania to determine factors influencing modern family planning use among women of reproductive age revealed that, women who made their own decision were more likely to practice FP methods than those who are not (32; Martin et al., 2019). However, a study conducted by Sebert, Shato, and Sierra (2019) (42) in Hondras explored the relationship between (IPV), pregnancy intention and FP use. The findings argued that there is no statistical association between intimate partner violence on modern FP use among married women.
The Christian married women were independent factor for practicing modern family planning methods than those the counterparts. This result is in line with Patton and Dalton (2015) conducted a study in United State of America, in Nigeria (44) in Rwanda and France assessed the relationship between sociodemographic factors and FP use. The results in current study was inconsistently that respondents who practice religious were less likely to utilize FP methods (45). The probable reason of Christian religious being more likely to use FP methods could be the civilization of the importance of child spacing (46). Likewise, it has been reported by the leaders of Roman Catholic church that Catholics do not have to breed like a rabbits, however they are allowed to use temporal family planning methods and prohibited from using emergency contraception and abortion without exception, even in life threatening of the a pregnant woman (47). Additionally, Protestantism have been reported to be flexible in using family planning for the sake of family size and the type of contraceptive use (47).
The findings of the current study showed that, respondents were more likely to utilize modern family planning methods if the preferred FP methods are available in health facilities compared to those respondents who were not able to access the methods. Similar results were reported in the studies done Ethiopia, Zambia and Burundi (48, 49, 50).