Study Population Characteristics
General characteristics of participants, such as body composition, biochemical assessment, and others among lower vs higher than the median of EDII and genotypes, are presented in Table 1. A total of 363 women with BMI mean and SD 30.9 (3.90) kg/m2 were divided into two groups, based on EDII median (0.07) lower (n=172) and upper than (n=191) median. The range of EDII was -3.83 to 3.19. About 70.8% of the study population were married. The level of leptin in individual's serum had 27.7 (11.8) ng/mL, and 4.02 (7.26) ng/mL of Galectin3 (Table1).
Association between population characteristics across rs 3807992 genotypes and median EDII score
Association between population characteristics across rs 3807992 genotypes and median EDII score have shown in Table1. Age of starting obesity and history of losing weight was higher in upper than median group of EDII, after controlling potential confounder including age, BMI, energy intake, and physical activity, there was a marginally significant mean difference among median of EDII (P=0.05). in the crude model significant mean differences were found for physical activity, starting obesity age (P<0.05), in body composition and biochemical variables in terms of fat-free mass (FFM), skeletal muscle mass (SMM), soft lean mass (SLM), fat-free mass index (FFMI), and HDL, there have shown significant mean difference (P<0.05). Categorical variables such as economic, and education status were significant differences across the median of EDII (P<0.05), moreover all the mentioned factors had a higher mean in the lower median of EDII. Also, EDII associated with body fat mass (BFM) (P=0.05) and BFM (%) (P=0.01), bone mineral content (BMC) (P=0.04), trunk fat (P=0.01), visceral fat (P=0.03), fat mass index (FMI) (P=0.01), and marginal significant for TG (P=0.06) after adjustment in top of EDII median was higher mean of all the mentioned variables.
Association between population characteristics among genotype category
Additionally, subjects were divided into two groups according to risk alleles of CAV1 genotypes: GG (n=75) without risk alleles and AA+AG with risk alleles (n=198). A marginal significant means difference was found in visceral fat (P=0.05) and FMI (P=0.07) and HC (P=0.06) among CAV1 genotypes category in the crude model. There was a significant difference was found for TG (P=0.04) after adjustment among genotype category groups. Also, a significant mean difference for HDL remained stable at its substantial differences (P=0.04) (Table1).
Galectin-3, leptin, and leptin resistance across rs 3807992 genotypes and median EDII score
Although leptin was a significant mean difference among the EDII median (P=0.03), after further controlling with economic status and education, starting obesity age, there was no significant mean difference for leptin resistance (P=0.21). Moreover, a marginal significant mean difference was found for Galectin 3 (P=0.06) (Table 2). The other variables were not any significant mean difference among median of EDII (P>0.05). Food group intake of study population among EDII category have shown in Figure 2.
The association between EDII score and with the leptin, leptin resistance and Galectin3
The association between EDII score and rs 3807992 genotypes with the leptin, leptin resistance, and Galactin3 were presented in Table 3. Increased adherence to EDII leads to an increase of 16.73 ng/mL in leptin level (β= 16.73, 95% CI= 1.56, 39.3, P= 0.04) and 0.55 in leptin resistance (β=0.55, 95% CI=0.00, 1.30, P= 0.06) in model 2 which was adjusted for, economic status, education level, age of starting obesity, losing weight history. By contrast, increased adherence to EDII in the association with that genotype showed no significant association in Galectin3 in model 2 adjustment (β= 0.91, 95% CI= -0.64, 2.48, P=0.24) (Table 3).
The association between rs 3807992 genotypes with the leptin, leptin resistance and Galectin3
After adjustment, there were not any significant association between CAV1 genotypes with a risk allele in the association with leptin (β=2.53, 95%CI= -3.42,8.48, P= 0.39), leptin resistance (β=0.08, 95%CI= 0.00,0.28, P=0.08) and Galectin 3 (β=1.08, 95%CI= -3.40,5.58, P=0.62) (Table 3).
The interactions between adherence of EDII across rs 3807992 genotypes on the leptin, leptin resistance, and Galectin3
The interactions between adherence of EDII across rs 3807992 genotypes on leptin, leptin resistance, and Galectin 3 were presented in Table 4. A marginal positive interaction was observed between EDII and risk alleles group (AA+AG) genotype in model 2 further adjustment by removing, economic status, education level more as confounders on leptin level (β=18.84, CI=3.25, 65.33, P=0.06) (Figure 1). Increased adherence to EDII in the interaction with CAV1 genotypes containing risk alleles (AA+AG) leads to an increase in leptin level 79.15 ng/ml (β= 79.15, CI= -1.23,163.94, P= 0.04) (Figure 1) in model 3 after controlling for further potential confounders (age, BMI, total energy intake, and physical activity, economic status, education level, age of starting obesity, history of losing weight). By contrast, adherence to EDII in the interaction with that genotype which includes risk alleles (AA+AG) showed no significant interaction on leptin resistance not in the crude model (β=0.57, CI=-0.36,1.51, P=0.22), and even after adjustment in model 3 (β=0.55, CI= -0.99,2.09, P=0.48). Although no significant interaction was found between EDII and CAV1 genotypes on Galectin 3 in the crude model, there was a marginal positive interaction after adjustment in model 3 (β=31.35, CI=0.13,77.13, P= 0.05) (Figure 1) (Table 3).