Background: The Traffic Locus of Control scale (T-LOC) measures a personality attribute revealing how a driver generally perceives possible causes of traffic crashes.
Objective: This study aimed to assess the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of T-LOC (T-LOC-A) among Lebanese drivers and to test its reliability and construct validity.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between October and December 2019 among a national sample of Lebanese drivers aged 18 years old and above, from all Lebanese governorates. A standardized questionnaire, developed in the Arabic language, includes three sections: Socio-demographic characteristics section, driving variables section; and the measurements section including the T-LOC and the driver behavior questionnaire. The internal consistency of the scale was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were performed to examine the construct validity of the T-LOC. Correlation between T-LOC and driver behavior was assessed using Pearson correlation. In addition, the associations between T-LOC-A and sociodemographic characteristics were evaluated.
A total of 568 drivers participated in the study. Of the total, 69% were male and aged between 18- and 82-years-old. In the previous three years, around 40% of the surveyed drivers had been involved in accidents and 50.4% were penalized for traffic offenses. The T-LOC-A had adequate psychometric properties, revealing good to excellent reliability levels and support the original four-factor structure of the T-LOC (α=0.85), including self (α=0.88), other drivers (α=0.91), vehicle/environment (α=0.86), and fate (α=0.66). The confirmatory factor analysis revealed a good data fit. Men reported a higher tendency to attribute the responsibility for driving situations to the other drivers (p=0.024), while women believed more in fate and luck than men (p=0.0012). Other drivers’ subscale (r=0.387, p<0.05), and self-related dimensions of T-LOC-A (r=0.155, p<0.05) were positively correlated with the aggressive violation.
Conclusion: The Arabic-version T-LOC-A exhibited good psychometric properties. In the Lebanese driving environment and cultural specificities, it is found to be a valid and reliable instrument, supporting the three factorial structures of the original T-LOC.