By 2050, the cumulative mass of end-of-life photovoltaic (PV) modules may reach 80 million metric tons globally. The impacts could be mitigated by circular economy (CE) strategies including module recycling, repair, and reuse. However, previous studies of PV circularity omit consideration of critical social factors. We use a novel agent-based model to integrate social aspects with techno-economic, factors—providing a more realistic assessment of circularity potential for previously studied CE interventions and assessing additional interventions that cannot be analyzed using techno-economic analysis alone. We also performed a global sensitivity analysis using a machine-learning metamodel. We show that excluding social factors underestimates the effect of lower recycling prices on PV material circularity. Interventions aimed at changing customer attitudes about used PV boost module reuse, although used modules can only satisfy a third of US demand during 2020–2050, suggesting that reuse should be complemented by recycling.