Background: The helicase Chl1p is a nuclear protein required for sister-chromatid cohesion, transcriptional silencing, rDNA recombination, ageing and plays an instrumental role in chromatin remodeling. This budding yeast protein is known to preserve genome integrity and spindle length in S-phase. Here we show additional roles of Chl1p at G1/S phase of the cell cycle following DNA damage.
Results: G1 arrested cells when exposed to DNA damage are more sensitive and show bud emergence with a faster kinetics in chl1 mutants compared to wild-type cells. This role of Chl1p in G1 phase is Rad9p dependent and independent of Rad24 and Rad53. rad9chl1 shows similar bud emergence as the single mutants chl1 and rad9 whereas rad24chl1 and rad53chl1 shows faster bud emergence compared to the single mutants rad24 , rad53 and chl1 . In case of damage induced by genotoxic agent like hydroxyurea, Chl1p acts as a checkpoint at G1/S. The faster movement of DNA content through G1/S phase and difference in phosphorylation profile of Rad53p in wild type and chl1 cells confirms the checkpoint defect in chl1 mutant cells. Further we have observed that the checkpoint defect is synergistic with the replication checkpoint Sgs1p and functions in prallel to the checkpoint pathway of Rad24p.
Conclusion: Chl1p shows Rad53p independent bud emergence and Rad53p dependent checkpoint, confirms its requirement in two different pathways to maintain the G1/S arrest when cells are exposed to damaging agents. The bud emergence kinetics and DNA segregation were similar to wild type when given the same damage in nocodazole treated chl1 cells which establishes the absence of any role of Chl1p at the G2/M phase. The novelty of this paper lies in revealing the versatile role of Chl1p in checkpoints as well as repair towards regulating G1/S transition. Chl1 thus regulates the G1/S phase by affecting the G1 replication checkpoint pathway and shows an additive effect with Rad24p as well as Rad53p activation when damaging agents perturbs the DNA.