Calcium ions is a part of signaling network of plant reactions against both biotic and abiotic stress (Dalcorso et al. 2010). It is obviously known that calcium as a universal second messenger and its conjugated proteins can mitigate hazards originates from metal stress. Also, calcium ions minimize negative charge of cell surface keeping cationic toxicants away (Yang and Poovaiah 2003). In addition, its binding to phospholipids guarantee the structural integrity of plasma membrane by stabilizing lipid bilayer which is subjected to severe deterioration provoked by heavy metals (Gonnelli et al. 2001; Hepler 2005).
The current study revealed the directly proportional correlation between cadmium and calcium at constant concentration of both lead and nickel. Significant increase of calcium may invigorate all tested plant species against cadmium stress.
As a result of Cd, Ni or Pb gripping, cell wall plasticity and microtubules network are adversely affected. This disruption imperiled cell division and activities (Wierzbicka 1998).
On one hand, Cd, Ni and Pb entry to the cell was through Ca transporters. On the other hand a strong competition appeared between calcium and some other heavy metals (Rodríguez-Serrano et al. 2009). Cd and Ca ions are physio-chemically alike. The resemblance of Ni+ 2 and Cd+ 2 ion radii to that of Ca+ 2 enriched the potentiality of their uptake via Ca+ 2 gated channels (Choong et al. 2014). Cd, Ni and Pb uptake through Ca transporters is in agreement with (Markich et al. 2006).
In cytosol, Cd and Ni as well as Pb are destructively denaturing total protein content in many plant species (Mishra et al. 2006). Not only protein quantitative changes were recognized but also enzymes activities of various metabolic processes are aggravatingly influenced by Cd, Ni or Pb (Taamalli et al. 2015).
Many authors emphasized this destructive role of heavy metals. (Baccouch et al. 2001) demonstrated similar results in nickel treated maize where (Liu et al. 2011) found the same approach in Suaeda salsa. (Małkowski et al. 2005) verified the positive relationship between lead and calcium in corn seedling roots.
The major target of calcium signals are calcium-modulated proteins (Yang and Poovaiah 2003). Moreover, elevation of cytosolic Ca+ 2 level enhance its combination to calmodulin protein which in turn controls a lot of physiological and biochemical responses inside the cell. In chloroplast, calcium converts NAD+ to NADP which is the final acceptor of electrons. On the contrary, cations of HMs adverse the process of electron transport by declining cytosolic free calcium during photosynthesis leading to ROS formation (Cruz De Carvalho 2008). (He et al. 2005) found that Ca+ 2 triggers phytochelatin synthase gene expression in order to improve plant tolerance against cadmium stress. Furthermore, in Arabidopsis seedlings, (Zhao et al. 2014) noticed the role of Ca+ 2 in auxin homeostasis in facing of Cd effects. (Kania et al. 2017) reported that inositol1, 4, 5-triphosphate (IP3) production stimulates discharge of sequestered calcium from its inventory.
(Małkowski et al. 2005) proved that cadmium-calcium correlation is more coherent through plasma membrane in maize seedlings compared to lead-calcium one which is stronger at apoplast level in maize seedlings.
Additionally, exogenous application of calcium enabled plant to diminish cadmium uptake and to quench its toxicity. This relation was reported by (Ahmad et al. 2015) in a study of Brassica juncea and by (Wan et al. 2011; Tian et al. 2011 ; Farzadfar et al. 2012) in some other plants like Brassica napus, Matricaria chamomilla and Sedum alfredii.
Lastly, the selected plant species were recorded for their accumulation ability of metal, the privilege that allowd these species to withstand in front of their enemies of metals. C. demersum has been demonstrated as good accumulator for Pb and Cd. M. spicatum and Najas indica were reported for Cd and Pb respectively (Singh et al. 2010; Ciszewski et al. 2013; Andresen et al. 2016).
To conclude, the ongoing work tries to describe the great battle among Calcium and HMs especially cadmium in which calcium still struggling till plant life termination. Herein, the more exposure to HMs, the more calcium efflux appears. So, calcium still increases while coping with high concentrations of metal.