Development a prognostic risk model based on B cell-related immune genes in Ovarian Cancer by integrative analysis of single-cell and bulk RNA sequencing data



Background. Ovarian cancer (OV) is the most serious malignancy of the female reproductive system and is generally diagnosed at an advanced stage with peritoneal metastasis. The aim of this research was to construct a tumor-infiltrating B (TIL-B) lymphocyte-associated immune-related gene profile for prognostic assessment of ovarian cancer patients.

Methods. The single cell RNA-seq data of metastatic ovarian cancer in this study were obtained by GEO data, and bulk RNA-seq data was obtained from TCGA database. Identification of immune-related marker genes in infiltrating B lymphocytes in tumor tissues of patients with metastatic ovarian cancer by scRNA-seq data analysis. Subsequently, based on bulk RNA-seq data and clinical follow-up data, univariate Cox analysis was used to identify the prognostic targets associated with tumor infiltrating B lymphocytes, and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression and multivariate Cox regression were used to construct prognostic risk models. The Kaplan-Merier survival curve and the ROC curve were used to test the prognostic performance of the model. EPIC, MCPcounter and ssGSEA software were used to predict the proportion of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in bulk RNA-seq expression profile samples. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to screen independent prognostic factors and construct linear plots to predict and assess 3 and 5-year survival of ovarian cancer patients.

Results. Single cell data from metastatic ovarian cancer tissue were clustered into 19 subgroups. After known cell type annotation, these cell subpopulations were annotated as six known cell types. The proportion of B cells was contrary to the clinical stage of the patient's tumor. Difference analysis identified 88 immune-related genes specifically expressed by B cells. Univariate Cox regression analysis, the LASSO regression analysis and multivariate Cox regression analysis were used to identify the independent prognostic factors associated with tumor invasion B cell immunity, ISG20 and SLAMF7. Based on the risk model constructed by ISG20 and SLAMF7, the AUC values of the 3-year and 5-year survival in the training set were 0.619 and 0.736, the AUC values of the test set were 0.694 and 0.758, and the AUC values of the external validation set were 0.6 and 0.61. The proportion of CD8+T cells, B cells, cytotoxic lymphocytes and aDC cells in the low-risk group was higher than in the high-risk group. The prognostic model has better independence and has good prognostic evaluation effect combined with clinical characteristics (p=0.013). At the same time, we also construct a nomogram based on the prediction model.

Conclusions. Our study identified immune-related prognostic marker genes ISG20 and SLAMF7 in TIL-B cells by analyzing single-cell and bulk RNA-seq data of metastatic ovarian cancer, and established and verified the prognostic model as an independent prognostic indicator of ovarian cancer. It can provide potential therapeutic targets for immunotherapy and chemotherapy in patients with advanced cancer and predict patients' therapeutic response.


Ovarian cancer is the most lethal malignancy of the female reproductive system(Siegel et al., 2022). If ovarian cancer is detected and diagnosed early, surgery and chemotherapy can better treat the disease in clinical treatment. However, for most ovarian cancer patients, they are commonly diagnosed at advanced stage (III/IV), with metastasis and high mortality(Jayson et al., 2014). Therefore, there is an urgent need to understand the underlying mechanism of ovarian cancer metastasis and its related biomarkers, so as to enable early diagnosis and timely treatment of ovarian cancer.

Single cell RNA sequencing is a new technology that can be used for transcriptome studies of individual cells, to investigate the heterogeneity of cell populations in tissues and to explore the cells involved in tumorigenesis and metastasis. The traditional bulk sequencing method averages the level of gene expression and does not reflect the proportion of cells in the tissue. Advanced tumor microenvironment is complex and highly heterogeneous, bulk RNA-seq cannot accurately response the components of the immune cells in the tumor microenvironment, and scRNA-seq relatively higher resolution and can be transcribed from a single cell level to explore the immune cells in the immune microenvironment.

The results of immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy in patients are related to NK cells, T cells and B cells in the tumor microenvironment, which makes the role of immune cells in the tumor immune microenvironment in tumor progression and treatment response process more important. At present, studies mainly focus on the role of T cell in anti-tumor immunity, but B cells are also the main component of infiltrating lymphocytes in tumor microenvironment, and there are few studies on their role in solid tumors(Paijens et al., 2021). Tumor-associated B cells are generally considered to promote cancer progression(Gu et al., 2019; Shalapour et al., 2015; Wei et al., 2016; Zhou et al., 2019). Nevertheless, in studies including multiple cancer species, high expression levels of B cell and plasma cell-related characteristic genes were associated with enhanced overall survival of patients(Iglesia et al., 2016). Given the dual role of TIL-B lymphocytes in cancer progression, we need to better understand the tumor microenvironment and the role of B cells to enhance therapy outcomes for patients with advanced ovarian cancer.

In this study, immune-related genes in TIL-B lymphocytes were analyzed at the single-cell level, and immunohistochemistry and clinical follow-up data were combined to explore immune-related prognostic markers of ovarian cancer, and a tumor infiltrating B cell-associated immune gene prognostic score model was developed to predict survival outcomes of ovarian cancer patients. The model can be used to distinguish potentially poor prognosis patients in the population and provide guidance for immunotherapy.

Materials & Methods

Data sources

Contains data of 6 cases of ovarian cancer metastasis cells scRNA -seq GSE147082 (Olalekan et al., 2021) through Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database ( to download. Cells isolated from the omentum of patients with metastatic ovarian cancer for single cell RNA sequencing. The clinical information of bulk RNA-seq data and samples from the The Cancer Genome Atlas Ovarian Cancer (TCGA-OV) cohort were downloaded from UCSC Xena ( and randomly assigned to the training set and test set in a 7:3 ratio. GSE18520 from the GEO database is used as an external validation dataset. All analyses in this paper were carried out under R V4.1.2. 

Single cell RNA-seq analysis

Seurat (Butler et al., 2018) was used for scRNA-seq data processing. First, quality control was carried out on data and cells with nFeature less than 200 and percent_mt greater than 20% were filtered out. Then use the "FindIntegrationAnchors" function in the Seurat package to integrate the data from six samples and remove batch effects. The integrated data was normalized by LogNormalize function, subsequently principal component analysis (PCA) was performed, followed by t-SNE algorithm for dimensionality reduction and visualization of the data. The cell clusters were annotated for known cell types using SingleR (Aran et al., 2019). The "FindAllMarkers" function is used to identify differentially expressed marker genes among different cell types. Genes with |logFC| > 1 and p < 0.05 were defined as differentially expressed genes. 

Gene function enrichment analysis

Gene Ontology(GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Analyses(KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis was performed by clusterProfiler (Yu et al., 2012) package (V3.14.3). p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. 

Construction of immune-related prognostic model of TIL-B cells

The endpoint of this research was overall survival (OS), and univariate Cox proportional regression model was used to screen candidate genes associated with prognosis in TIL-B cell immune-related genes from the training set. The LASSO Cox regression model of glmnet (Friedman et al., 2010) was used to further screen the prognostic candidate genes to avoid model overfitting. Then, a stepwise selection method based on Akchi Information criterion (AIC) was used to select the inclusion variables (Attaar et al., 2017) to screen the appropriate TIL-B immune-related prognostic model. We calculated the risk score using the following formula:  . Then, maxstat package method was used to define the optimal cutoff value, and the patients were classified into high risk group (greater than the optimal cutoff value) and low risk group (less than the optimal cutoff value). 

Analysis of immune checkpoint and regulators of immunogenic cell death

Immune checkpoints (ICs) and a regulator of immunogenic cell death (ICD) related genes were gathered from published articles (Huang et al., 2021). The Wilcox test was used to analyze the expression of related genes in the training set, test set and external validation set (* : P <0.05;* * : p < 0.01; * * * : p < 0.001; * * * * : p < 0.0001). 

Analysis of tumor infiltrating immune cells

We used three software including EPIC, MCPcounter and ssGSEA to calculate the proportion of tumor infiltrating immune cells between different risk score subgroups, and then tested the differences between groups using Wilcox.test.  (* : p <0.05;  * * : p < 0.01;  * * * : p < 0.001;  * * * * : p < 0.0001) 

Construction and validation of the nomogram

Univariate Cox regression analysis was used to screen clinic variables associated with prognosis, and univariate Hazard Ratio (HR) and p value were calculated. Variables with p <0.05 were used to develop nomogram with the rms R software package along with the prognostic risk score. The Calibration curves describes the degree to which the actual survival time fits the survival time forecast by the nomogram. 

Statistical analysis

R software V4.1.2 ( was used for statistical analysis and visualization in this study. The Wilcoxon test was used for comparison between the two groups. Survival and survminer were used for survival analysis. p <0.05 was considered statistically significant.


Analysis of single-cell RNA-seq data

Ovarian cancer single cell sequencing data(GSE147082) from 6 samples containing a total of 9885 cells. According to strict quality control process, quality control and filtering of scRNA-seq data were carried out, in which cells with Feature_RNA < 200 or > 20% were filtered. After quality control, the number of detected genes was nFeature and count was evenly distributed in 6 samples (Figure S1A, B), and the proportion of ribosomes in cells was approximately 5% (Figure S1A, C). After filtration, 9583 high-quality cells were obtained, and subsequent analyses were based on these cells. According to the correlation analysis, it was found that the number of detected genes (nFeature) had a strong positive correlation with the sequencing depth (UMIs total number, nCount) (Figure S1D). We then normalized the data using the LogNormalize method. The normalized data were analyzed for variance analysis to identify highly variable genes, and the first 2000 highly variable genes were selected for the downstream analysis (Figure S1E).

We then apply the FindIntegrationAnchors function in the Seurat package to remove the batching effect and perform a t-SNE clustering analysis. Finally, 9583 cells from 6 samples were clustered into 16 cell clusters (Figure 1B).Visual clustering results showed that after removing the batch effect, the difference of sample origin was no longer the main difference among cell clusters (Figure 1A right).At this point, we need to know the cell type of each cell cluster, and use the R software package SingleR to annotate the known cell type of the cell cluster after clustering.The annotated cells mainly contain six known cell types: :Monocytes(CD16, CD14)、T cells ( CD4+ Th1)、NK cells、B cells(naive)、T cells(CD4+, memory TREG)、Monocytes(CD16+, CD14+) (Figure 1C).Marker genes (CD14, FCGR3A, COL1A1, CTLA4, FOXP3, IL2RA, CD79A, MS4A1, CD96) of known immune cells were used to verify cell types identified (Sakaguchi et al., 2020; Abplanalp et al., 2021). As shown in Figure 1D, marker genes of immune cells are highly expressed in corresponding cell clusters. In addition, FindAllMarkers function were used to identify the differentially expressed marker genes among cell clusters. 1000 cells were randomly selected from each cell cluster and the top 10 differentially expressed genes in each cell type were displayed with heatmap (Figure 1E). The patient samples were ranked by disease score (Olalekan et al., 2021), from low to high: PT-1 to PT-6, as shown in Table1 (Olalekan et al., 2021). The proportion of cells from different sample sources indicated that the proportion of tumor infiltrating B cells varied greatly among all samples. As shown in Figure 1F, the sample with the largest proportion of tumor infiltrating B cells was GSM4416535, whose ovarian cancer stage was ypT3a Nx M1/ Ivb, and the lowest disease severity score was PT-1. And GSM4416537, which had the second largest proportion of tumor-infiltrating B cells, had a disease score of PT-2. The results showed that the proportion of tumor infiltrating B lymphocytes in the tissues of 6 patients with ovarian cancer was opposite to the seriousness of the disease.  

Marker gene enrichment analysis of B cells

We used GO and KEGG enrichment analysis to study the enrichment of 140 marker genes in related pathways found in tumor infiltrating B cells of ovarian cancer samples, as shown in Figure 2A-C. The results showed that the biological process (BP) of marker genes in B cells were mainly enriched in: positive regulation of cell activation, positive regulation of lymphocyte activation, positive regulation of leukocyte Activation, B cell activation, antigen receptor-mediated signaling pathway, immune response - activating cell surface Receptor signaling Pathway, B cell receptor signaling Pathway. Cellular component (CC) was mainly enriched in: Immunoglobulin complex, external side of plasma membrane, immunoglobulin complex, Circulating, Blood Microparticle, MHC Class II Protein Complex. Molecular function (MF) are mainly enriched in: Antigen binding, immunoglobulin receptor binding, MHC class II protein complex binding, MHC protein complex binding, immune Receptor activity, peptide binding, peptide antigen binding, MHC class II receptor activity, immunoglobulin Binding. Figure 3D mainly shows the top 10 pathways in KEGG enrichment analysis results, which are as follows: Cell adhesion molecules, Hematopoietic Cell lineage, Hematopoietic Cell lineage, and Intestinal immune network for IgA Production, epicardial thyroid disease, Antigen processing and presentation and other pathways. These enrichment results suggested that the marker genes we screened were closely related to the function of B cells, further indicating that the genes we screened were reliable marker genes of B cells. 

Construction of prognostic model of marker gene in tumor infiltrating B cells

To further assure that the maker genes we screened for TIL-B cells were immune-related genes, the ImmuneSigDB subset (V7.5.1) from the immune-related dataset C7 was downloaded from the GSEA database(Liberzon et al., 2015). 88 TIL-B cell marker genes were obtained by intersection with marker genes found in TIL-B cells (Figure 3A), which could be considered as immune gene sets associated with TIL-B cells. To investigate which of these genes are associated with patient survival prognosis, we obtained a dataset of TCGA-OV cohort of ovarian cancer patients from the TCGA database (N=379), which was randomly assigned to a training set (N=265) and a test set (N=114) in a 7:3 ratio. Based on the TCGA training set, we adapted univariate Cox regression analysis of marker genes in 88 TIL-B cells to search for potential prognostic genes. The results showed that 10 of these genes were significantly correlated with the survival and prognosis of patients (Figure 3B): IGHM (HR = 0.93, P=0.0314), CCR7 (HR=0.66, P=0.015), ISG20 (HR=0.74, P=0.0098), IGKC (HR=0.95, P=0.0375), IGHG1(HR=0.95, P=0.0277), IGJ (HR=0.91, P=0.0106), CD38 (HR=0.64, P=0.003), SLAMF7 (HR=0.76, P=0.0053), MZB1 (HR=0.86, P=0.0184) and FKBP11(HR=0.74, P=0.0441). LASSO Cox regression analysis was then used to further screen these genes and lambda.min, which was cross-validated 10 times, was selected as the optimal lambda (Figure 3C, D). The corresponding model contained six non-zero coefficients (Figure 3E). Patients with high expression of these genes had better survival prognosis than those with low expression, such as IGL, SLAMF7, CCR7, FKBP11, CD38 and ISG20 (Figure 3F). In order to construct a prognostic model for patients, all six prognostic protective genes were selected for multivariate Cox regression analysis to construct a prognostic model for TIL-B cells. In the process of model construction, the AIC model was selected based on the model AIC value, and the optimal AIC model was selected through the stepwise backward algorithm. The optimal model ultimately contained genes ISG20 and SLAMF7 (Figure 3g). Based on these two genes, a prognostic score model for TIL-B was constructed: RiskScore = -0.23*exp(ISG20) -0.23*exp(SLAMF7). 

Validation of prognostic model performance

The risk score of each sample in the training set, test set and external test set was calculated using the TIL-B immune-related prognosis model constructed by us, and the patients were split into high and low risk groups according to the best cutoff value of risk score. Heatmap was used to demonstrate the expression of relevant genes in TIL-B immune-related prognosis model in patients, and it was found that the expression values of ISG20 and SLAMF7 were contrary to the trend of risk score (training set -Figure 4A, test set - Figure 5A, external test set - Figure 6A). Subsequently, the Wilcox test was used to test the difference between the expression of ISG20 and SLAMF7 in the high-risk and low-risk groups. As shown in the box diagram in Figure S2, ISG20 and SLAMF7 were up-regulated in the low-risk group in all data sets, and their expression levels were negatively correlated with risk score. Scatter plots were used to show the risk score, survival time and survival status of patients in each data set (training set-Figure 4 B and C, test set-Figure 5 B and C, external test set-Figure 6 B and C). In order to verify whether the risk score constructed by us is associated with the prognosis of patients, we used Log Rank to test the K-M survival curve of patients in the high and low score groups, and the results showed that patients in the high risk group had a worse prognosis than those in the low risk group (Log Rank test of training set p<0.0001, HR=2.72, As shown in figure 4D; Log Rank test p=0.0038, HR=2.31, as shown in Figure 5D;   External test set log Rank tests P =0.022, HR=1.34, as shown in Figure 6D).The 3-year and 5-year survival were predicted by the model. ROC curves (AUC) were 0.619 (3 years) and 0.736(5 years) in the training set and 0.694 (3 years) and 0.758 (5 years) in the test set (Figure 5E). ROC curves (AUC) in the external test set were 0.6(3 years) and 0.61(5 years) respectively (Figure 6E). These results indicate that the model constructed based on TIL-B immune-related genes has a good prognostic value for survival. 

Assessment of tumor immune cell infiltration

Tumor infiltrating immune cells play an important role in tumor progression and clinical treatment response. EPIC, MCPcounter and ssGSEA were used to evaluate the tumor infiltrating immune cells using bulk RNA sequencing data. It is generally believed that patients with higher proportion of CD8+T cells, B cells, Cytotoxic lymphocytes, NK cells and aDC cells in tumor microenvironment have better clinical prognosis(Becht et al., 2016b; Fridman et al., 2012; Becht et al., 2016a). In our results, the proportion of CD8+T cells, B cells, Cytotoxic lymphocytes, and aDC cells in the low-risk group was higher than that in the high-risk group (Figure 7).

Immune checkpoints and regulators of immunogenic cell death

Patients with ovarian cancer are commonly diagnosed at advanced stage or with metastatic disease, and the usual surgical interventions have failed to react. A combination of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immune checkpoint inhibitors is used to treat cancer, and even therapeutic tumor vaccines are used. Immune checkpoints (ICs) and immunogenic cell death (ICD)(Krysko et al., 2012; Huang et al., 2021) are important in cancer immunotherapy strategies and chemotherapy(Gebremeskel and Johnston, 2015), and we studied their expression levels in patients with different risk scores. It can be seen that in the TCGA-OV cohort data set, ICs expression levels in different risk groups are significantly different. Overall, ICs expression levels in the low-risk group are higher than those in the high-risk group (Figure 8A). The expression of ICs related genes CD86, LAG3, LAIR1 and CD44 in the TCGA-OV dataset and the external GEO dataset were significantly different in the high and low risk groups, and the expression was up-regulated in the low risk group (Figure 8A, B). CD86, as a ligand of Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), can interact with it to inhibit T cell activation (Dyck and Mills, 2017). LAG3 is an important ICs with important implications for cancer, infectious diseases, and autoimmunity. The binding of leukocyte associated immunoglobulin-like receptor 1 (AIR-1) to its ligand results in the loss of immune function in the tumor microenvironment (TME), and reduced T cell function and immune response of antigen presenting cells (Xu et al., 2020). Patients in the high-risk group all had low ICs expression levels, suggesting that ICs inhibitors may be less effective in the high-risk group. As for ICD-related gene sets, most of them were also highly expressed in the low-risk group, and CXCL10 and TLR4 showed statistically significant differences in TCGA-OV and GEO data sets (Figure 8C, D), suggesting that patients in the low-risk group might have better chemotherapy effects. Consequently, the risk score can reflect the expression level of ICs and ICD regulatory factors, and can be used for drug guidance in tumor immunotherapy and chemotherapy. 

Clinical nomogram construction

Considering individual differences of clinical patients, clinically related characteristics of patients were included (Table 2), and the relationship between clinically related characteristics and risk score and prognosis of patients was studied by univariate Cox regression and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Univariate Cox regression analysis showed that risk score and clinical stage were correlated with the prognosis of patients (Figure 9A). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that, after adjusting other factors, there was no significant correlation between clinical stage and prognosis (P>0.05), while risk score (HR=3.151, P=0.013) was significantly correlated with prognosis (Figure 9B). This indicated that the risk score was an independent prognostic factor. Subsequently, we established a prognostic linear plot based on risk score to quantitatively estimate the 3,5-year survival probability of ovarian cancer patients (Figure 9C). The Calibration curves shows that TCGA-OV cohort data (Figure 9D) and external validation data GSE18520 (Figure E) are in good agreement with the optimal prediction probability (gray dotted line in figure) at 3 and 5 years. These results suggest that this comprehensive nomogram can be used as a reliable tool for predicting OS in ovarian cancer patients.


Each year, about 313,959 women worldwide develop ovarian cancer, and about 207,252 women die from ovarian cancer, severely endangering women's health(Sung et al., 2021). Although ovarian cancer is treated with advanced surgery and chemotherapy, patients with advanced metastatic ovarian cancer have a poor prognosis. Due to the heterogeneity of advanced tumor tissue microenvironment, there is currently a lack of effective biomarkers, and unable to predict their treatment prognosis(Hoppenot et al., 2018). In recent years, tumor infiltrating cells have attracted considerable attention due to the clinical success of checkpoint blockers (ICBs) (Paijens et al., 2021). Tumor infiltrating B lymphocytes has been reported to be associated with the prognosis of ovarian cancer. In this study, six types of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes were identified by analyzing single-cell RNA-seq data from patients with metastatic ovarian cancer. The higher the proportion of tumor infiltrating B lymphocytes, the milder the clinical staging of the patient's tissue. Studies have indicated that high expression of B-cell signature genes is associated with enhanced overall survival in patients with melanoma, lung adenocarcinoma, breast cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (Iglesia et al., 2016). By comparing the differentially expressed genes of TIL-B lymphocytes with other immune cells, we identified 140 marker genes that specifically express TIL-B lymphocytes. Eighty-eight marker genes related to immunity were screened. Univariate Cox, Lasso Cox and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to identify two prognostic factors associated with B lymphocyte immunity in ovarian cancer. The results showed that the risk score calculated based on these two genes was significantly associated with a poor prognosis in ovarian cancer patients. We found that ISG20 and SLAMF7 genes were expressed higher in patients with low risk score than in patients with high risk score. The ISG20 gene is located in the cytoplasm and nuclear lumen and activates 3', 5' exonuclease activity and RNA binding activity. Involved in defense responses to viruses, negative regulation of viral genome replication, and catabolic processes containing base compounds(2020; Van Tong et al., 2018). SLAMF7 gene is located in the endoplasmic reticulum, participates in adaptive immune response, activates NK cells (2020), and regulates T cell function in tumor microenvironment(O'Connell et al., 2021). Considering that the outcome of immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy in cancer patients is related to T cells, NK cells and B cells in the tumor microenvironment(Paijens et al., 2021). We used EPIC, MCPcounter and ssGSEA to evaluate tumor infiltrating immune cells, and the results showed that the proportion of tumor infiltrating B lymphocytes, CD8+T cells, cytotoxic lymphocytes and aDC cells in the low-risk group was higher than that in the high-risk group. Risk score was an independent prognostic factor in multivariate Cox regression analysis after the inclusion of complex clinical factors. The results of K-M survival curve analysis showed that patients with low risk score had better clinical prognosis. The nomogram was developed to predict the clinical prognosis of ovarian cancer patients. We explored the differences in the expression levels of immune checkpoints and immunogenic cell death regulators in patients with different risk scores, and found that the expression levels of immune checkpoints were up-regulated based on CD86, LAG3, LAIR1, and CD44 in patients with ovarian cancer with low risk scores. LAG3 is more effective in treating melanoma, especially in other refractory immune checkpoint blockers(Ascierto et al., 2017); Studies have shown that by blocking the binding of LAIR1 to its ligand, cytotoxic T cell infiltration and anti-tumor immune response can be enhanced to eliminate cancer cells (Xiao et al., 2016). In colorectal cancer, CD44/OPN acts as an immune checkpoint, inhibiting T cell activation and leading to tumor immunotherapy resistance (Klement et al., 2018). Therefore, we can develop new immunotherapy targets based on these immune checkpoints. The expression of immunogenic cell death regulators CXCL10 and TLR4 was significantly upregulated in patients with low risk score. We developed a new nomogram using a prognostic model, based on which we can better predict the clinical outcome of ovarian cancer patients.


Overall, our study identified immune-related prognostic marker genes ISG20 and SLAMF7 in TIL-B cells by analyzing single-cell and bulk RNA-seq data of metastatic ovarian cancer, and established and validated a prognostic model as an independent prognostic indicator for ovarian cancer. Provide potential therapeutic targets for immunotherapy and chemotherapy in patients with advanced cancer and to predict patient response to treatment.


OVOvarian cancer

GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus

PCA: principal component analysis

t-SNE: t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding

GO: Gene Ontology 

KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Analyses

LASSO: least absolute shrinkage operator

TIL-B: tumor-infiltrating B

BP: biological process

MF: molecular function

CC: cellular component

OS: overall survival

HR: hazard ratio

ICs: Immune checkpoints

ICD: immunogenic cell death


Ethics approval and consent to participate

Not applicable.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Availability of supporting data

Not applicable.

Competing interests

No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.


This work was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China to Xuan Huang [grant number: 32000485]

Authors' contributions

Jing Hu, Xuan Huang and Qihao Wei contributed equally to this work.

JH, WQ performed the statistical analyses and drafted the manuscript; JH, WQ and HX edited the manuscript; LY, XX guided and revised the manuscript.


Throughout the writing of this dissertation I have received a great deal of support and assistance. I would also like to thank my tutors, for their valuable guidance throughout my studies. In addition, I could not have completed this dissertation without the support of my friends, who provided stimulating discussions as well as happy distractions to rest my mind outside of my research.

Authors' information


Huangshi Hubei Medical Group of maternal and Child Health Hospital, Hubei, China

Jing Hu

Department of Ophthalmology, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

Medical Research Center, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

Xuan Huang

Sinopharm Genomics Technology Co., Ltd., Wuhan 430030, China

Yaping Lu, Qihao Wei

Institute of Reproductive Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China

Xianjin Xiao


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Table 1 Metadata of metastatic omental tumors in 6 patients with ovarian cancer

Disease score





Histologic grade

Neoadjuvant therapy

Stage (PMN/FIGO)








ypT3a Nx M1/ Ivb





Left ovary

High grade serous carcinoma


pT3c Nx Mx/ IIIc





Left fallopian (STIC)

High grade serous carcinoma


ypT3c N1a / IIIc





Left fallopian (STIC)

High grade serous carcinoma


pT3c Nx / IIIc





Left fallopian (STIC)

High grade serous carcinoma


pT3c, N1, M1/ IIIc






Malignant mixed Mullerian tumor


ypT3c Nx/ IIIc

Table 2 Clinical information statistics of patients in TCGA-OV cohort




status = Live (%)

146 (38.6)

time (mean (SD))

1194.62 (946.94)

clinical_stage (%)

   Stage II

23 (6.1)

   Stage III

294 (78.0)

   Stage IV

57 (15.1)

   Not report

3 (0.8)

neoplasm_histologic_grade (%)


1 (0.3)


45 (11.9)


321 (84.9)


1 (0.3)


2 (0.5)


6 (1.6)

   Not report

2 (0.5)

lymphatic_invasion (%)


101 (26.7)


48 (12.7)

   Not report

229 (60.6)

age (mean (SD))

59.55 (11.42)