The mitochondrial genome of C. acuta was sequenced, and its molecular and phylogenetic features, were studied in this work. The semilooper's circular mt genome measured 15,399 bp in size, slightly bigger than Trichoplusia ni (15,239 bp), which belongs to the same Plusiinae subfamily . Similarly, the mt genome of green semilooper is very close to the other defoliator pests infesting onions, such as S. exigua (15,365 bp) and S. litura (15,374 bp) [29, 30]. The protein-coding genes are found scattered on both Heavy and light strands, covered 71.93% of the total mt genome of C. acuta, and were 11,077 bp long. These PCGs include cytochrome c oxidase, NADH dehydrogenase, Cytochrome B, and ATPase, commonly found in most insect species belonging to Lepidopteran order.
Insect species like Ctenoplusia albostriata , Diachrysia nadeja , Trichoplusia ni , Laelia suffuse . Cerura menciana , all have the same genes with little differences in size and location. The ATN codon was used to start all of C. acuta's protein-coding genes. The initial codon for cox1 was ATT, instead of "CGA" utilized in several insect species . In C. acuta, two termination codons were discovered. Four genes cox1, cox2, nad2, and nad4, used the incomplete termination codon "T"; nevertheless, other genes were terminated by TAA. Our findings are consistent with those of Liu et al. , Dai et al. , and Dai et al.  who found a single "T" as a termination codon for the cox1 and cox2 genes in the majority of Lepidopteran species. The incomplete termination codons "T" in lepidopteran mt genes might get polyadenylated to TAA codon during translation .
Codons having A or T at the third prime position were found to be overused in this study when compared to other similar codons. For example, the valine codons GTC and GTG were rare, whereas GTT and GTA's synonymous codons were prevalent (Table 2). In the mitogenome of Leucoma salicis, a similar tendency was observed . The length of 22 transfer RNA genes in the C. acuta mt genome ranged from 63 bp (trnR) to 71 bp (trnK), which is similar with the mt genomes of L. suffusa , D. pyloalis , and C. menciana . Except for trnS1 (AGN), which lacks the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm and forms a simple loop, all tRNA secondary structures resembled the conventional clover leaf shape (Fig. 2). Many insect mitogenomes showed similar results, including Bombyx mori , Actias selene , Spodoptera frugiperda , Spodoptera litura , Chrysochroa fulgidissima , B. zonata  and Idioscopus nitidulus .
Ten of the tRNA genes were found to contain 14 G-U mismatches in their secondary structures, forming a weak bond. The amino acid acceptor stems of tRNALeu(UUR), tRNAAla, tRNASer1, and tRNASer2 have five U-U mismatches (Fig. 2). Sun et al.  observed a similar trend in L. salicis. The control (AT-rich) region varies in size across members of the Noctuidae family, although it includes comparable sequence components in most species. In many Lepidopteron species, the ATAGA motif found at the start of the control region is a conserved motif sequence. Similarly, Li et al.  in L. suffuse, and Dai et al.  in C. menciana have also reported that the ATAGA motif in the control region followed by the Poly-T stretch and microsatellite A/T repeats elements along with Poly-A stretch at the end of the control region.
The intergenic spacer region between the genes trnS2 (UCN) and nad1 includes the 'ATACTAA' motif, which commonly presents in most lepidopteran species even though the size of the intergenic spacer region varies . This spacer region is generally considered a constitutive synapo-morphic feature of the lepidopteran mitochondrial genomes because this region won't present in non-lepidopteran insects species .The similar motif were located in the Dysgonia stuposa , L. salicis , C. menciana  and Ctenoptilum vasava . The motif 'TACTAAAAATAAAT' was located in the intergenic spacer region between the genes trnS2 (UCN) and nad1 of the C. acuta, common in 5 lepidopteran species of the Plusiinae subfamily (Fig. 3). However, this motif was not reported in any other lepidopteran subfamilies.
The phylogenetic analysis discovered that C. acuta is most closely correlated to the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, from the same subfamily Plusiinae, notably in mt genome similarities, 13 PCGs, 22 tRNAs, and two rRNAs. However, the size of the control region appears to be different . The five sub-families comprising Hadeninae, Noctuinae, Amphipyrinae, Plusiinae, and Heliothinae from the Noctuidae family are closely related. The sub-family of C. acuta, Plusiinae is closely related to the Heliothinae and Amphipyrinae. However, the Hadeninae and Noctuinae are sister groups from the same superfamily (Fig. 5). The phylogenetic tree confirmed that the previously characterized species C. albostriata , D. nadeja , and T. ni  belonged to the sub-family Plusiinae and are related to the C. acuta which confirms that the C. acuta has belonged to the Plusiinae sub-family. The phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed based on the concentrated data of the 13 PCGs, which supports the traditional morphology-based view of the relationship within the Noctuidae family.