Early diagnosis of maxillary canine impaction and its associated factors is crucial for preventing its consequent adverse effects. Since these risk factors have not been specifically evaluated in the Iranian population, this study aimed to evaluate all these variables in a sample of Iranian patients. Awareness of risk factors related to root resorption of the lateral tooth adjacent to IMC can help dentists and dental specialists choose the appropriate treatment plan and make early interventions.
In our study, CBCT images of 138 patients with 150 MICs were evaluated; 12 patients had bilateral maxillary canine impaction. The female to male ratio was 3:1. Studies of Kanavakis (2015), Dagsuyu (2017), and Andersen et al (2021) were in line with this study, indicating that the impaction of maxillary canine is more common in females (3, 16, 17). It is speculated that variations in genetics or craniofacial growth patterns between males and females may be the cause for the aforementioned difference (2, 17). However, female patients being more attentive to aesthetics and more willing to receive orthodontic treatment can also be the reason for this difference (12, 18).
Alqerban et al’s study in 2016 showed that ALRR due to impaction is more common in females (4). Considering that in our study, the number of females was higher than males, a comparison cannot be made between the two sexes. Nevertheless, since impacted canines are more prevalent among females than males, ALRR might also be more prevalent among females (4).
According to Alqerban in 2016, Guarnieri in 2016, and Ucar et al in 2017, no significant association was observed between sex and the location of root resorption, which is in accordance with our study (4, 11, 19). Moreover, these studies revealed that in cases with ALRR, the severity of resorption in females was significantly higher, which is in line with our results (1).
Since the delayed eruption of maxillary canines is usually noted after the age of 11(20) and the probability of root resorption in teeth adjacent to an impacted tooth increases with time (1), the age range of our samples was limited to 12–35 years. In accordance with studies of Dogramaci (2015), Rafflenbeul (2019), and Kalavritinos (2020), our study showed no association between the patients’ age and the severity and location of ALRR (5, 6, 21).
In our study, most IMCs were palatally positioned (84%), which is in accordance with Brosson (2020) and Hadler-Olsen’s (2015) studies (22, 23). Buccal impaction is usually related to insufficient space in the dental arch, while palatal impaction may occur even with adequate space (12).
In this study, the highest prevalence of the vertical position of IMC towards the adjacent lateral incisor was in the middle third (55.3%), incisal third (29.3%) and apical third (15.3%), respectively. These results are in accordance with the studies of Rafflenbeul (2019) and Andresen (2021) (5, 16).
In the 150 samples evaluated in this study, 109 (72.9%) of adjacent lateral incisors had no root resorption. This is in accordance with Liu et al’s study in 2008 in which 210 impacted canines were evaluated and the prevalence of maxillary lateral root resorption was 27.2%(24). Moreover, in the present study, among the teeth with root resorption, 20 (13.1%) showed slight, 10 (6.7%) moderate and 11 (7.3%) severe root resorption. Strbac et al’s study in 2012 obtained similar results (25).
In accordance with the studies of Bin (2015), Guarnieri (2016), and Rafflenbeul (2019), in our study, the rate of ALRR was higher in the middle (14.7%), apical (12%), and incisal third (0.7%), respectively (5, 19, 26). Similar to our findings, no significant association was observed between the vertical position of IMC and the severity and location of ALRR in the studies of Cuminetti (2017), Kalavritinos (2020) and Bin (2015) (1, 6, 26).
The results of the present study showed that the IMC’s follicle size was not significantly associated with the severity and location of ALRR. This finding is in accordance with the results of Cuminetti (2017), Rafflenbeul (2019) and Kalavritinos (2020)’s studies (1, 5, 6). Nevertheless, Chaushu et al’s study in 2015 showed a significant association between IMC’s follicle size and severe ALRR (27). This difference could be due to the fact that in our study, all resorption degrees were reported, from no to severe, unlike the abovementioned study in which only severe degrees were reported.
Ucar et al (2017) reported that neither the transverse position of IMC nor the distance between the cusp tip and apex of IMC from the midline were associated with the severity and location of ALRR (11) which is in line with the findings of the present study.
Cuminetti et al (2017) showed that the mean value of CAM was lower in patients with severe ALRR (1). However, similar to our study, Cuminetti et al found no significant association between the transverse position of IMC and ALRR (1).
Our study showed no significant association between the sagittal position of IMC and the severity and location of ALRR. This finding is in line with the studies of Jawad (2016), Ucar (2017) and Hadler-Olsen (2019)(11, 23, 28). The findings of Ardakani et al’s study is however at odds with our findings; their study showed that the buccal positioning of IMC can increase the severity of ALRR (12). This difference can be due to Ardakani et al’s smaller sample size (40 samples) or their sample’s different age range (11–45 years).
The present study showed that an increase in the distance of the canine cusp tip from the occlusal plane decreases the probability of ALRR in the middle third of the root. Our team found no previous studies evaluating the relationship between the vertical position of IMC and the location of ALRR.
Our study showed no significant association between the severity and location of ALRR and CAL, CAO, CAM. This finding is in accordance with the studies of Hadler-Olsen (2015), Ucar (2017) and Ardakani (2021) (11, 12, 23). Moreover, Guarnieri et al’s study in 2016 showed no significant association between ALRR and CAM and CAO (18). However, they reported that if the angle between the long axis of IMC and the adjacent lateral incisor is higher than 54°, the probability of ALRR exceeds by 61% (19).
According to the results of our study, the distance between the cusp tip of the IMC and the occlusal plane can be used as an index for early detection and prevention of ALRR, especially in female patients with IMC. If this distance is high in a patient, periodic examinations may be required to prevent the impaction conditions from deteriorating and to reduce the risk of ALRR to the minimum.
This study had limitations. Evaluating the changes in the severity of ALRR due to IMC in one person during the time would have led to more reliable findings. Due to the hazards of X-ray exposure in several imagings, this study could not be conducted with a longitudinal approach (10, 11).