The main objective of systematic review was to investigate the recent studies on mining industry in Malaysia. The focus of discussion was divided into research on gold, bauxite, tin, rare earth, granite, iron ore and others minerals.
4.1 Research on gold mining
The first subtheme was gold mining research in Malaysia. An investigation was undertaken into the distribution of mineral, major, and trace elements in mine wastes from a gold mining location, as well as their relevance to prospective human health dangers, according to Kusin et al., (2019). Mine waste samples consisting of waste rocks, soils, and sediments (including borrow pit, waste dump, stockpile, and tailings) were collected at the Selinsing gold mine region in Pahang, Malaysia. The key elements, such as SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, K2O, and MgO, were acquired primarily from their mineralogical compositions, which were dominated by quartz and muscovite (in waste rocks), kaolinite and illite (in soils), and illite and chlorite-serpentine (in waste rocks), according to the research (in mine tailings). In addition, this study offers a strong indicator or understanding of the potential hazards to human health.
4.2 Research on bauxite mining
The second subtheme, bauxite research, has four papers out of a total of twenty-four. KY et al., (2016) investigated the negative effects of bauxite mining in Malaysia and discovered that bauxite contributed to air, water, and soil pollution due to bauxite dust; bauxite leaching into water sources resulting in reduced soil fertility; and affecting agricultural food products and aquatic life. Furthermore, bauxite occupational exposure has negative health consequences for miners and the surrounding community, including increased respiratory symptoms, water contamination, and other potential health risks from bauxite and heavy metal ingestion, such as noise-induced hearing loss and mental stress.
Kusin et al., (2018) on the other hand, examined at the distribution of heavy metals and metalloids in surface sediments of heavily-mined regions for bauxite ore in Pengerang, Johor, Malaysia, as well as the risk assessment that went along with it. He observed that the bulk of heavy metals (Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Sr, Zn) and metalloids (As) in sediments were Fe and Al, which contributed directly to the negative ecological and human health effects. Kuan et al.,(2020) brought attention to study on bauxite mining in Malaysia, which focused on the long-term viability of the industry. He discovered a disconnect between local legislation and global best practises, particularly in the area of environmental management and performance. The investigation also uncovers flaws in Malaysia's current Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) and bauxite mining practises..
In addition, Mingyuan et al. (2020) concentrated on land restoration in Bukit Goh, Kuantan, as a result of bauxite mining activities. Jatropha curcas' growth performance in bauxite mine soil was studied for 90 days in a greenhouse setting, and he determined that it has the potential to be cultivated as an alternative crop in bauxite mine soil, with plants growing in the subsurface (46.54%) and topsoil (46.54%).
4.3 Research on tin mining
The third subtheme was research on tin mining conducted by Sanusi et al.,(2017), Sakai et al., (2017), Ahmed et al.,(2018), Fauzi et al., (2019), Sanusi et al.,(2021), Shahbudin et al.,(2021), Lehmann et al.,(2021). Most of these researchers were conducted the research on ex-tin mining and the impacts on the environmental and social activities. Sanusi et al. (2017) evaluated the impact of new townships and residential areas being developed in old tin mining sites, notably in the heavy mineral- or tin-bearing alluvial soil in Kuala Lumpur, as well as background radiation exposure and human health risk assessment. He realised that the odds of getting diagnosed with cancer and dying from it in Kuala Lumpur were quite slim. As a result of ex-tin mine mining activities, Sakai et al., (2017) investigated the presence of arsenic and heavy metals in the Selangor River basin and detected arsenic and five heavy metals (nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, and lead). Furthermore, Koki et al., (2018) looked at the occurrence of heavy metals in ex-mining ponds in the Klang Valley and Melaka, concluding that arsenic was the most important risk factor, presumably due to old tin mining activities.
4.4 Research on granite mining
The fourth subtheme was research on granite mine activities as reported by (Murlidhar et al.,(2021). He investigated the flyrock distance generated by blasting using artificially intelligent algorithms for three open-pit granite mines in Johor, Malaysia. A total of 152 blasting events were tracked in order to acquire field data. These flyrock can cause damage to neighbouring structures and equipment, as well as danger to individuals, particularly employees on construction projects. As a result, flyrock prediction is critical in mining research.
4.5 Research on rare earth mining
The fifth subtheme was rare earth mining with a total of two out of 24 studies were reported in Malaysia. In Malaysia's environmental issue, Phua et al. (2016) investigated the use of influence in the rhetoric of an Australian transnational mining business and its supporters. He observed that Malaysia's underlying political economy, which is replete with corruption and 'crony capitalism,' and public opinion is frequently disregarded or systematically influenced by government-controlled mass media, has a detrimental impact on the country's approval of rare earth mining. Tohar et al.,(2020) studied the major rare earth-bearing minerals in Johor, Malaysia's southern peninsula, and identified monazite (Ce), apatite, zircon, titanite, allanite (Ce), and bastnaesite (Ce).
4.6 Research on iron ore mining
Sarman et al.,(2019) conducted research on iron ore mining, concentrating on the potential of geotourism for ex-iron ore mines in Bukit Besi, Dungun, Terengganu. Geotourism is a responsible and sustainable sort of tourism package creation, similar to ecotourism and other nature-based derivatives of tourist, that takes a deeper look at local landscapes and the geological basis beneath them. The existence of inhabitants and the railway, which is part of the intrinsic information that makes the monuments remaining in Bukit Besi have a higher value in a tourist context, the study showed that Bukit Besi has a significant potential to become a geotourism destination in Malaysia.
4.7 Research on others mining study
Rendana et al., (2017) investigated land revegetation in Tasih Chini, Pahang, as a consequence of mining operations, whereas Goh et al., (2017) investigated the key elements and regulatory framework of the new National Mineral Policy 2 (NMP2). Abidin et al., (2018) and Hasib et al., (2020) investigated the water quality of Sungai Langat as a result of the influence of various forms of land use, such as mining operations. Meanwhile, according to Mohamad et al.,(2019), ripping production was projected based on production rate and relationships with sandstone and shale rock from three mining locations. Quintela-Sabaris et al., for example, focused their mining research on revegetation on ultramafic soils in Sabah, Malaysia (2020). He observed that perennial plants with lateral spreading capacity and a conservative growth approach are the best choice for restoring ultramafic degraded areas in Sabah. On the other hand, Alaloul et al.,(2021) noted the construction sector's interconnectedness with other sectors through complex connections that contribute considerably to the economy and gross domestic product (GDP), notably in Malaysia's mining industry.