Whereas the adverse impact of fine particulate matter on coronary heart disease and respiratory disorders has been clarified, its influence on glomerular function is not well defined in population studies. Serum creatinine levels were quantified in 820 randomly recruited people (50.7% women; mean age 51.1 years). Among them, 653 participants were followed up for a median of 4.8 years. Using multivariable-adjusted mixed model, eGFR (or serum creatinine) both at baseline and follow-up were regressed against long term residential black carbon (BC) or PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm). In longitudinal analysis, the percent change in eGFR was regressed against long term residential exposure to BC or PM2.5. eGFR averaged 80.9 (SD 16.4) mL/min/1.73m2 and median long term PM2.5 and black carbon amounted 13.1 (SD 0.92) and 1.10 (SD 0.19) µg/m³, respectively. In multivariable-adjusted cross-sectional analyses, eGFR was unrelated to BC and PM2.5 (P ≥ 0.59). During follow-up, eGFR decreased on average by 1.9 mL/min/1.73m2 (95% confidence interval: 1.0-2.8). The percentage decline in eGFR was not significantly associated with either BC or PM2.5 (P ≥ 0.75). In conclusion, long-term residential exposure to PM2.5 and black carbon is not associated with eGFR decline in predominantly healthy people drawn from a general semirural population.