Edible bird’s nests (EBNs) have been traditionally produced in Southeast Asia and consumed in China. Indonesian farmers construct buildings for swiftlet birds and harvest their nests. Farming EBNs does not directly degrade forest resources and is therefore considered as a sustainable farming product, while the expansion of other agricultural activities often relies on the degradation of natural resources. This study examines how natural resources and agricultural livelihood are associated, focusing on Indonesian EBN farmers. Using our survey data combined with satellite information on the forest extent of Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, we measure production efficiency and identify the natural and social factors that enhance production performance. The results show that natural factors, such as forest extent and the existence of ponds, are positively associated with the production efficiency of EBNs. These natural resources could help swiftlets in collecting food and building nests. On the contrary, while farming EBNs is a sustainable and profitable option, the initial costs necessary for constructing a building to house the swiftlets may negatively impact farmers’ participation in the process.