The past decades have witnessed an exponential growth in the discovery of functional materials, benefited from our unprecedented capabilities in characterizing their structure, chemistry, and morphology with the aid of advanced imaging, spectroscopic and computational techniques. Among these materials, atomic-scale low-dimensional compounds, as represented by the two-dimensional (2D) atomic layers, one-dimensional (1D) atomic chains and zero-dimensional (0D) atomic clusters, have long captivated scientific interest due to their unique topological motifs and exceptional properties. Their tremendous potentials in various applications make it a pressing urgency to establish a complete database of their structural information, especially for the underexplored 1D species. Here we apply graph theory in combination with first-principles high-throughput calculations to identify atomic-scale 1D materials that can be conceptually isolated from their parent bulk crystals. In total, two hundred and fifty 1D atomic chains are shown to be potentially exfoliable. We demonstrate how the lone electron pairs on cations interact with the p-orbitals of anions and hence stabilize their edge sites. Data analysis of the 2D and 1D materials also reveals the dependence of electronic band gap on the cationic percolation network determined by graph theory. The library of 1D compounds systematically identified in this work will pave the way for the predictive discovery of material systems for quantum engineering, and can serve as a source of stimuli for future data-driven design and understanding of functional materials with reduced dimensionality.