Poultry include a number of domesticated avian species which encompasses the chicken (meat production – “broiler” or reared for laying eggs – “layer”) and ducks birds (Al-Nasser et al. 2020). In general, the application of the biosecurity measures is essential for the success of poultry production. Indeed, biosecurity measures reduce the risk of introducing of pathogens during the poultry production cycle (Goualie et al. 2020). In addition to, it reduces financial losses through decrease mortality rate and treatment costs (Soro et al. 2020).
Development and implementation of a biosecurity plan in a livestock enterprise require a documented approach and scoring systems have been developed to rank biosecurity protocols and their implementation (Van Steenwinkel et al. 2011).
Our results showed that the farm C of broiler chicken, layer chicken and duck farms as well as farm B of breeder chicken were recorded the highest scores per each type of production due to the application of internal and external biosecurity measures, while broiler chicken A, layer chicken B, breeder chicken C and duck A had the lowest biosecurity score due to presence of many defects in internal and external biosecurity measures linking with high prevalence of some pathogenic bacteria. The biosecurity is an important part of any avian health management program reduce interactions between poultry and infectious agents (Morishita and Derksen 2021). The farms with high biosecurity score had low percentage of suspected isolated pathogenic bacteria. In contrast, low score biosecurity farms were related to high risk of bacterial and viral poultry diseases (Greening et al. 2020) such as Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, Clostridial and Salmonella bacterial disease ( Bernd et al. 2022 ), More ever, Newcastle, HPAI, IBV, MPV, MS, and MG viral diseases (Yoo et al. 2022).
Our results recorded the highest prevalence of E. coli was 61.11% in the duck as a result of the absence of some internal and external biosecurity measures. On the other hand, the lowest E. coli prevalence was 42.4% in broiler chicken followed by breeder chicken (45.9%) ( Musiev et al. 2020). This is due to the highest application of internal and external biosecurity measures. In addition to, the age factor theory that plays role in the E. coli prevalence in breeder chicken farms (Awad et al. 2016).
The highest incidences of E. coli were found in droppings samples, pen litter and cloacal samples this is could be due to the habitat of E. coli in the normal microflora of poultry the intestinal tract furthermore, the droppings contaminate the pen litter (Borgatta et al. 2012). On the other hand, the lowest percentages of it was recorded in the water source this might due to the chlorination treatment of water ( Jonsson et al. 2012) as well as in the feed samples collected from feed storage this is due to heat treatment during pelleting process in addition the effect of organic acid (Steghöfer et al. 2021).
Our results mentioned that the most popular E. coli serotypes in broiler chicken were O114, O153, O112, O44 and O164. While, O26, O128, O91, O44 and O152 were most popular prevailed serotypes in layer chicken. In addition to that, in the breeder chicken were O44, O124, O86 and O26. Also, in the duck farms were O114, O119, O157 and O124. Finally, the most commonly isolated O groups in poultry farms were O44, O114, O91, O26, O127, O164, O86, O157, O55 and O128 (El-Jakee et al. 2012; El-Sayed et al. 2015).
The EaeA virulence gene was isolated from O114, O164, O119, O26 and O124 serotypes of E.coli. On the other hand, the Stx1 virulence gene was recorded in O164 and O26 E. coli serotypes ( Hossain et al. 2021).
Our result showed that the highest prevalence of Pasteurella was found in duck's farms followed by breeder chicken, broilers chicken while the lowest in layer chicken this is might be due to the management of farms, vaccination and nutrition status of the poultry (Panna et al. 2015).
The most Pasteuella spp was isolated from bird samples (cloacal and droppings) as well as water from drinkers, feed from feeders and pen litter this is due to the contamination of feed, water and pen litter from nasal discharge and droppings of infected birds (Musiev et al. 2020). In contrast, there were complete absence of Pasteurella in dust, storage litter, water source, wheel, wall and feed storage (Nasrin et al. 2007)
The most popular serologically isolated Pasteuella spp was P. multocida. The P. multocida serotypes were A:1, A:3 and A:12 isolated from different poultry farms production. The P. multocida serotypes A:1 and A:3 are widely recognized as the causative agent of the most fowl cholera outbreaks in poultry flocks (Mohamed et al. 2012).
The virulence genes pfhA were isolated from A:1, A:3 and A:12 P.multocida serotypes, in addition to hgbB virulence genes were recorded in A:1 and A:3 serotypes of P.multocida while, the toxA virulence genes were founded in A:1 serotype of P.multocida (Abd-Elsadek et al. 2021).
The incidence of Campylobacter spp was the highest in duck's farms in contrast, the lowest incidence was in breeder chicken. The Application of some biosecurity measures were affecting on the flock to be positive with Campylobacter and there was a negative relationship between application of biosecurity measures and the prevalence of Campylobacter (Newell et al. 2011 ; Schweitzer et al. 2021)
The highest prevalence of Campylobacter were isolated from droppings, cloaca as it is a normal inhabitant in poultry intestine ( Di Marcantonio et al. 2022; Wayou et al. 2022) followed by pen litter due to droppings contamination as it is a manure born pathogen ( Sahin et al. 2015) then, in feeder and drinker due to bird droppings contamination ( Mota-Gutierrez et al. 2022). In contrast, lowest prevalence was recorded in water source this might due to chlorination treatment of water ( Jonsson et al. 2012), feed storage and fresh litter as a result of the low water activity in the dry feed and litter which prevent Campylobacter survival ( Newell et al. 2011).
Our result showed that the most serotypes of Campylobacter were C. Jejuni and C. coli and they are a common finding in the poultry farms ( Wayou et al. 2022). While, C. Lari, C. Upsaliens and C. Lanienae were less frequent or absent in some farms. Also, the poultry was a reservoir of other Campylobacter species including C. lari, C. upsaliensis and C. concisus (Kaakoush et al. 2014).
The Campylobacter virulence genes cdtB and cdtC were isolated from Campylobacter serotypes. The cdtB was one of the most important Campylobacter isolates virulence genes (Karikari et al. 2021).