The authors greatly appreciate all the patients who participated in this study and to the investigators collected the data on site.
HL, JC, and YL conceived and designed the study. JC, JW, YL, FG, and WW were in charge of management of screened, collected, reviewed, and recorded the data. JC, JW, YL, and MH performed statistical analyses. JC, JW, and YL drafted the main manuscript text. HL had full access to all the data of the study and took responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. All authors reviewed the manuscript and approved the final version.
This study was supported by the special fund for National Health and Family Planning Commission (NHFPC) Scientific Research in the Public Welfare (201502023), Liaoning Province Translational Medicine Research Center of Kidney Disease (2014225018), and Dalian High-level Talents Innovation Support Program (2021RD01). The sponsor had no role in the design and conduction of the study, in the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data, or in the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Availability of data and materials
The datasets analysed during the current study are not publicly available due to the potential use in further researches but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
The study was carried out in accordance with Declaration of Helsinki. The study protocol was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of the First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University China, approval number (LUCK 2014–25) and Ethical Committees of all the participating institutions. We obtained written informed consent from all patients, the information of all patients was anonymized and de-identified prior to analysis.
Consent for publication
Competing interestsNo competing interests are declared.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
1 Department of Nephrology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Key Laboratory of Kidney Disease of Liaoning Province, The Center for the Transformation Medicine of Kidney Disease of Liaoning Province, No. 222 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116011, P.R. China.
2 Department of Nephrology, Dalian Renal Care Hospital, Dalian, Liaoning, P.R. China.
3 Department of Business center, China Medical Tribune, Beijing, P.R. China.
4 Department of Nephrology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Diseases, Beijing, P.R. China.
5 Blood Purification Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, P.R. China.
6 Division of Nephrology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, P.R. China.
7 Division of Nephrology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, P.R. China.
8 Department of Nephrology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, P.R. China.
9 Department of Nephrology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, P.R. China.
10 Department of Nephrology, Dalian Municipal Central Hospital, Dalian, P.R. China.
11 Department of Nephrology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, P.R. China.
12 Department of Nephrology, Affiliated Zhong Shan Hospital of Dalian University, Dalian, P.R. China.
13 Department of Nephrology, General Hospital of Shenyang Military Area Command, Shenyang, P.R. China.
14 Department of Nephrology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, P.R. China.
15 Department of Nephrology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, P.R. China.
16 Department of Nephrology, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, P.R. China.
17 Department of Nephrology, General Hospital of Ningxia Medial University, Yinchuan, P.R. China.
18 Department of Nephrology, Daping Hospital and Surgery Institute, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, P.R. China.
19 Department of Nephrology, General Hospital of Benxi Iron and Steel Co., Ltd, Benxi, P.R. China.
20 Department of Nephrology, Lanzhou University Second Hospital, Lanzhou, P.R. China.
21 Division of Nephrology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, P.R. China.
22 Department of Nephrology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumchi, P.R. China.
23 Department of Nephrology, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, Hangzhou, P.R. China.
24 Department of Nephrology, An Steel Group Hospital, Anshan, P.R. China.
25 Department of Nephrology, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou, P.R. China.
26 Graduate School of Dalian Medical University, 9 Western Section, Lvshun South Street, Lvshunkou District, Dalian 116044, P.R. China.