Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) confined concrete is regarded as an innovative and economical approach for structural repairation. Two typical materials (carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP)) are selected in this study to investigate the concrete strengthen effect in a severe environment. The resist ability of FRP-confined concrete is discussed when subjected to coupled erosion between sulfate erosion and freeze-thaw cycles. Electron microscopy examines concrete's surface and interior degradation during coupled erosion. The corrosion degree and principle of sodium sulfate are analyzed using pH, SEM electron microscope, and EDS energy spectrum. The axial compressive strength test is used to evaluate the reinforcement of the FRP-confined concrete column, and the stress-strain relationship for various FRP-confined techniques in a coupled erosion environment is obtained. The error analysis is performed to calibrate the experimental test result using four existed prediction models. All observations indicate that the deterioration process of FRP-confined concrete is complicated and dynamic under coupled effect. Sodium sulfate initially increases the initial strength of concrete. However, subsequent freeze-thaw cycles may aggravate concrete fractures, while sodium sulfate further degrades the strength of concrete through the cracking development. A precise numerical model is presented to simulate the stress-strain relationship, which is critical for the design and life cycle assessment of FRP-confined concrete.