Compared with traditional linear elastic materials, the soft structure composed of incompressible hyperelastic materials has not only geometrical nonlinearity but also material nonlinearity during deformation. In this paper, the absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF) is used to study the large deformations and large overall motions of incompressible hyperelastic curved beams. A novel large deformation dynamic modeling method for curved beams made of hyperelastic materials is proposed, in which a simplified Neo-Hookean model is combined with the one-dimensional ANCF beam element. The elastic force vector is calculated according to the exact expression of curvature. The dynamic equations are derived by using the virtual work principle. The dynamic responses of a cantilever silica gel beam under gravity are calculated based on the present method and compared with those of the improved low-order beam element (ILOBE), high-order beam element (HOBE), and commercial finite element analysis software (ANSYS). Simulation results show that the proposed method can accurately describe the large deformation and large overall motion of the beam, and has better computational efficiency. Research in this paper provides an efficient dynamic model for the dynamics analysis of soft robot arms.