The study design used for generating the data set was cross-sectional design for studying the patterns of usage of SNS that is based on study design used in other studies[3–6]. Data is of the study that was conducted among the undergraduate students studied in different colleges in Idukki district, Kerala. The district had 36 colleges of which five were government colleges. It is important to study the emerging adult groups from the colleges as the Gross Enrolment Rate on higher education of 18–23 years age group in India was 24.5%and in Kerala it was 30.8% in 2015-16. Idukki district is known for higher enrolment in colleges so it is very useful for researchers to have an access to the data. The district of Idukki the first district in India with complete broadband cover age. This makes it important to generate data on the district on the SNS usage is of greater importance.
The data was collected from the students studied bachelor degree courses in Idukki district. The justification for the selection was due to the fact that majority of emerging adults pursued bachelor degree courses in the colleges.
1. All those who were doing second year of the selected colleges and consented to participate.
2. Those students who have completed 18 years of age and below the age of 25 years at the time of data collection.
1. The married students were excluded even if they were in the age group of 18 to 25 years.
The sample size calculated using Open Epi version 3.03, with an assumption that 80 percent of students accessed a form of social networking site as found in a college students study. For purpose of adjusting for the design effect due to the use of as cluster sampling, the estimated sample size was multiplied by two. With a precision of 5%, the sample estimated at 95% CI was 492. It was then rounded to 500.
Multistage cluster sampling was adopted for sample selection. First 10 colleges were drawn randomly that included professional and non-professional colleges out of 36 colleges in Idukki district. From each selected college, all students who studied second year constituted the sampling frame. From the list, the first author selected the samples as per the probability proportionate to size (PPS). The PPS was followed because; the total number of students in each of the college was not equal in number.
Pre-tested questionnaire with having three sections was used for data collection. Section A was on the information about socio-demographic details, general information on SNS membership and usage, SNS usage pattern such as, duration, frequency and activities, network characteristics including size of the network and the nature of relationships. There were two dependent variables namely, self-esteem and social capital. Section B and C were used for collecting information on the self-esteem and social capital respectively. Section B used for measuring self-esteem. Rosenberg self-esteem scale as it was globally accepted and commonly used[3, 5]. The scale had a 10-item scale to measure self-worth by measuring both positive and negative feelings about the self. All items were vividly answered using a 4-point Likert scale ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. The scale was measuring a combination of positively and negatively worded statements on self. In India, the Hindi version of the scale was validated in 2005. The Cronbach’s alpha of Rosenberg scale validated in India was 0.80. The Section-C assessed the Social capital using an adapted and modified version of the Internet Social Capital Scale (ISCS) developed by Dimitri Williams in 2006. The original scale had 20 items with two subscales for assessing the two types of social capital namely, bridging and bonding capital. The modified version had only 16 components.
The modified social capital scale in English was validated in Kerala among college students after removing two components that were found to be inappropriate to the Indian context. The social capital scale was scored on a 5-point Likert scale. The Cronbach’s alpha of validated bonding and bridging subscales were 0.76 and 0.75 respectively. After obtaining permission from the corresponding author, the scale was used for the present study. The scale was translated into Malayalam and back translated for validation. Data for the present study was collected using a Malayalam version of the questionnaire.
People in the age group between 18–25 years are operationalised as Emerging adults. The present survey was conducted among the second year students from the selected colleges as mentioned above. Those students were in the early phase of emerging adulthood.
Self-esteem was operationalised as an attitude towards self. Self-esteem depends on how a person values oneself based on his or her skills, abilities, social relationships and future outcomes[13, 14].
Purportedly, Self-esteem affects one’s trust in others, the relationships, and the work - nearly every part of one’s life. Positive self-esteem gives one the strength and flexibility to take charge of lives and learn from one’s mistakes without the fear of rejection. Self-esteem score obtained using Rosenberg self-esteem scale.
Social capital was operationalised as an advantage one gets out of the interactions in a social network. This term generally refers to the resources gained through the relationship with others. Social capital score was obtained using the Internet Social Capital Scale (ISCS).
The first author collected the data from the participants. The data collection was done from June to August 2015.
Data storage, cleaning and analysis
The data were coded and entered in Microsoft Excel 2010and later it was cleaned. The statistical analysis was done using IBM SPSS version 21. The questionnaires were stored with the first author. The privacy and confidentiality of the participants were strictly maintained while analysing the data and reporting the results by masking the identities of the students. The data sets are published in psycharchives.org.
As the tool used for study was having scales that were already validated in India, the researchers did not validate separately. The reliable tools with good reliability score were used for the study.
Rosenberg self-esteem scale had a 10-item scale to measure self-worth by measuring both positive and negative feelings about the self. All items were vividly answered using a 4-point Likert scale ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. The scale was measuring a combination of positively and negatively worded statements on self. In India, the Hindi version of the scale was validated in 2005. The Cronbach’s alpha of Rosenberg scale validated in India was 0.80.
An adapted and modified version of the Internet Social Capital Scale (ISCS) of the Social capital scale developed by Dimitri Williams in 2006 had only 16 components. The modified social capital scale in English was validated in Kerala among college students after removing two components that were found to be inappropriate to the Indian context. The social capital scale was scored on a 5-point Likert scale. The Cronbach’s alpha of validated bonding and bridging subscales were 0.76 and 0.75 respectively.