Relationship between fish diversity and water environment and ecological health system
As an important ecological group in freshwater ecosystem, fish is an important link of material circulation and energy transfer, which has extremely important ecological research significance. Some studies have shown that the distribution law of fishery biological communities is closely related to the changes of ecological environment, and there is also a strong correlation between the living environment and periodic movement habits of dominant species of different populations(Gao et al.2019;Li et al.2011).Therefore,the changes of fish diversity and community distribution affect the biological community structure in the whole water ecological environment to a certain extent,so as to regulate the ecological health of water environment.
Compared with other areas, there are fewer fish species in Zhalong wetland, which may be due to the fact that the fish species in the water body are not fully caught during sampling, with a little deviation(Hu et al.2021).Even in the same water body, the water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and other physical and chemical factors of different water environments will be different. The food source and habitat that can be provided to fish are also different.Among the three landforms of Zhalong wetland, wet meadow,lake water and reed swamp, the functional group OM is mostly distributed in the wet meadow, the functional groups HE and IN are mostly located in the lake water, the functional area ZO is mostly located in the reed swamp, the functional groups PH and PI are distributed, and the functional group BE is mostly located in the lake water and reed swamp.Carassius auratus gibelio,Pelteobagrus fulvidraco and other OM functional groups are species with strong vitality and high tolerance to harsh environment. The large number of these species with high tolerance is also a sign of environmental deterioration.(Li 2010;Chen 2011)
According to the standard methods for China (MEP (Ministry of Environmental Protection 2002),among the physical and chemical factors sampled in this time,the contents of ammonia nitrogen,nitrate,total phosphorus and total nitrogen significantly exceed the standard value, belonging to the category of severe pollution, which is also consistent with the previous results of diversity analysis, that is, moderate to severe pollution.
Division method of fish functional groups
In most of the relevant studies in China, the functional groups are divided according to the feeding habits of fish(Zhang et al.2012;Hu et al.2016).At the same time, each fish species with similar functions has a certain degree of redundancy. When a certain fish species decreases, its impact on the function of water ecosystem may be replaced by other fish species with similar functions in the fish community. Therefore, it is particularly important to successfully divide the fish in the fish community into functional groups(Ma 2020).In this paper, the functional groups of fish populations are divided according to the relevant characteristics and feeding habits of fish, which is convenient to study the relationship between fish and the environment and its physical and chemical factors, and ensure the scientificity and preciseness of the analysis results.
Compared with traditional taxonomy, the method of dividing fish functional groups by feeding habits in this paper can not only reflect the correlation between fish niches, but also more intuitively reflect the energy flow and material cycle of effluent ecosystem. In essence, it reveals the mechanism of interaction between fish and the adaptability of the community, which is conducive to our deep understanding of the role of fish in the community and the structure of the community.
Relationship between RDA analysis results and actual situation
It is known from RDA results that the first and second axes together explain 32.8% of the species cumulative rate of change, illustrating that fish diversity and functional group distribution are influenced by interspecific competition as well as phytoplankton, benthic and aquatic biomass, in addition to environmental factors(Li et al.2022).
Because of the uneven internal topographical distribution of Zhalong wetlands and the impact of East rising reservoirs blocking floodtraps and engineering such as 301 National roads(The people's Government of Heilongjiang Province,Heilongjiang,China), the circulation of water bodies within reserves is compromised and poor, resulting in significant fish abundance and biomass gaps at some sampling sites(Wang et al.2021).
In the current ecological research, global nitrogen deposition has attracted extensive attention. A large number of modern human activities, such as fossil fuel combustion and animal husbandry, have significantly increased the input of nitrogen from atmospheric deposition to soil and water(Holland E.A. 1999).However, excessive nitrogen deposition has a significant negative effect on the ecosystem(Schindler D.W. 1993).
A total of 20000 hectares of arable land are planted under Zhalong wetland. In spring, the intensive use of nitrogen fertilizers and animal husbandry etc. cause the atmospheric deposition to increase greatly the nitrogen output into the water column. According to Ti C.P. et al., excessive nitrogen deposition can cause a great negative ecological impact, which is also the reason for the high level of nitrate in water bodies of Zhalong wetland(Ti et al.2011;Guo 2020). Besides that, the intensive use of chemical fertilizers and the discharge of domestic sewage raise the phosphorus content in large amounts(Zhong 2019).Eutrophication of water bodies allows plankton to grow in large numbers, thus making Carassius auratus gibelio, Phoxinus percnurus, and Perccottus glehni the dominant species, which provide an adequate source of nutrients for Channa argus(Yang et al.2021).
Relationship between fish community structure and environmental factors
The spatial difference of fish community structure is not only due to different species and living habits, but also affected by the spatial heterogeneity of environmental factors(Li et al.2012).The main environmental factors affecting the structure of fish community are dissolved oxygen, turbidity, temperature, water depth and so on. The main difference of environmental factors comes from the different water environment. Li J et al. believe that the five environmental factors of river width, water temperature, altitude, pH and the distance between dams have a strong correlation with the community structure.Liu Y et al. believe that total phosphorus is a significant factor affecting fish community structure(Liu et al. 2021).Brown et al. believe that conductivity, slope and average width are the key factors affecting the composition of fish(Brown et al. 2000).
After analysis based on the available data, several factors, such as chloride, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and ammonia nitrogen, were significantly associated with fish community structure in the Zhalong wetland. It is known from the studies of Guo C.X. and Liu T.L. et al., that physicochemical factors such as electrical conductivity, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and dissolved oxygen are the main influencing factors for phytoplankton growth, thus being able to influence PH functional groups with phytoplankton edible properties and ZO functional groups with zooplankton edible properties through the ascending effect(Guo et al.2016;Liu et al 2021).Thereby further affecting the functional groups PI and OM, which are carnivorous and omnivorous.And Cl− has a negative effect on fish functional groups because chloride can affect fish respiration and cause lesions to tissues such as gills and blood in fish(Jiang et al 2009).Fu Y. et al. found that ammonia nitrogen was toxic to fish when its content exceeded a certain range in water bodies.The toxic effect of ammonia nitrogen on fish increased gradually with the increase of influencing factors such as pH and temperature.According to the physicochemical data of Zhalong wetland,higher pH was one of the main factors affecting ammonia nitrogen toxicity, but ammonia nitrogen did not achieve the expected effect on fish impacts in Zhalong wetland due to water temperature and other physicochemical factors(Fu et al,2018).
Biological evaluation of water quality
According to the water quality of Zhalong wetland, Shannon-Wiener diversity index and Pielou evenness index are used to evaluate the water quality grade in this study.From the biological evaluation results of water quality of fish communities, the water body of Zhalong wetland is generally in a moderately polluted state. It can not well meet the living environment needs of fish in the water and the further value needs of human viewing and playing. According to the water ecological evaluation status of different sampling points, the real-time water quality detection system should be added and improved, so as to reduce or avoid the direct discharge of domestic sewage in the upstream and control it. Further improve the protection and restoration of wetlands and maintain the ecological stability of Zhalong wetland.
The evaluation results of biodiversity index showed that Shannon-Weaver index reached the level of medium pollution in three seasons. Pielou evenness index shows that the water quality is between mild and moderate pollution in the three seasons. Considering the trend, Shannon-Weaver index shows an upward trend from spring to summer, while Pielou evenness index shows a relatively stable trend with little fluctuation. Because Pielou evenness index eliminates the sudden increase and decrease of species, the result will be better(Lu et al.2021).
Considering the results, the difference of the calculation methods of the two indexes will lead to some differences in the trend, but the analysis results tend to be consistent, that is, the water quality is roughly moderately polluted, which also shows that the analysis in this paper is more accurate. However, in order to avoid errors to the greatest extent, when constructing the evaluation system of wetland water ecosystem represented by fish, we should integrate the quantitative analysis of different water body structures and different terrains through zoning and sub regional methods, so as to weaken the subjective differences between diversity index evaluation and obtain more comprehensive and accurate water ecological evaluation results(Zhao et al.2021).
Suggestions and Prospects
First of all, we should strengthen the supervision of Zhalong wetland, publicize environmental protection and wetland protection for tourists, deal with the discharge of garbage and domestic sewage, and reduce the impact of catering, leisure and entertainment on Zhalong wetland. Secondly, we should strengthen residents' awareness of environmental protection and wetland protection, and avoid and reduce residents' fishing and destruction of fish resources in Zhalong wetland.
It is suggested to strengthen the water ecological monitoring of Zhalong wetland, which can comprehensively reflect the water environment quality. Even if the physical and chemical monitoring technology is advanced, the designed precision instrument can only measure the concentration of poison, but can not measure its toxicity intensity. The intensity of toxicity can only be obtained by biological monitoring. Through the above measures, we hope to effectively reduce the environmental pollution of Zhalong Wetland and improve its ecological environment, which can be used as a reference for the better construction of Zhalong wetland.