This study examines the effect of climate-induced agricultural productivity change on child nutritional outcomes. We also examine heterogeneity in the effect of climate-induced agricultural productivity changes on child nutritional outcomes through market access and education. Using micro level multiple waves of farm household panel data from Nigeria , we first show that perception and high temperature (heat stress) reduces agricultural productivity. Secondly, using fixed effects instrumental variables (FE-IV) models, we show that climate-induced agricultural productivity change has a negative effect on child nutritional outcomes, measured by child height-for-age and weight-for-age. The results indicate that climate changes undermine the ability of smallholder farmers to increase agricultural productivity and improve nutritional outcomes. The main channel through which climate-induced agricultural productivity change affects child nutritional outcomes is by decreasing food production for own consumption. The results further show that households who have limited access to markets and lower educational level are more vulnerable climatic shocks. Thus, ex ante interventions and policies geared towards climate smart agriculture and ex-post measures are needed to cushion vulnerable households from falling into severe food insecurity and malnutrition. Such measures need to be complemented with strategies for improving farmers’ access to markets and capacity strengthening to enhance smallholders’ resilience to climatic shocks and improved nutritional outcomes.