SWOT analysis, or situation analysis, is to arrange various major internal strengths, weaknesses, external opportunities and threats closely related to the research object in a matrix form. Then using the idea of system analysis, the factors are matched and analyzed, and a decision conclusion is drawn8, 9. In this paper, SWOT analysis is used to comprehensively, systematically and accurately study the problems encountered in medical online teaching during the epidemic period, so as to provide new strategies for medical teaching reform. Table 1 summarizes the analysis.
SWOT matrix of medical online teaching during epidemic period
Internal and external factors
1. Convenient, fast, Instant and efficient
2. Rich resources and solid foundation
3. Personality teaching, pioneering thinking
4. Cultivate autonomous learning ability
5. The most effective measures in special period
1. Teachers are inexperienced and unable to integrate resources effectively.
2. Talk on paper and lack of practice.
3. The evaluation and assessment system are not perfect.
4. It is difficult to form an effective learning environment.
1. Strong support from national policies
2. The rapid development of the Internet
1. Make full use of high-quality resources and improve teaching mode
2. Use the epidemic period to consolidate the foundation and expand thinking
3. Improve the comprehensive quality of medical students in combination with national policies
1. Optimize course design and simulate practical training.
2. Strengthen the construction of teachers, select excellent teachers to teach, and share online teaching experience.
2. The original teaching plan has been broken.
3. Network security
1. Reasonably plan the time and reformulate the teaching plan
2. Strengthen medical humanities and ethics education and maintain Internet security
1. Formulate phased learning objectives
2. Improve and perfect the examination and evaluation system and improve the teaching quality
Online teaching has been proved as an efficient modality of learning in different educational and governmental studies10, 11, 12, relying on the Internet platform, online teaching transfers the traditional physical classroom to a virtual live studio. By making full use of the characteristics of real-time communication and two-way interaction of live broadcasting, medical students are no longer limited by time and space, and can use fragmented time to conduct teaching interaction and learning anytime and anywhere, which is time-saving and efficient13. A number of high-quality platforms, such as MOOCs, Jreenity, And Rain Classroom, offer "micro-courses" of 5 to 10 minutes, the elaborate teaching video enables students to concentrate, fully mobilize their enthusiasm and improve their learning efficiency. For the key and difficult problems, students can watch the replay repeatedly and consolidate the knowledge points in time. Medical colleges and universities at home and abroad have realized the sharing of high-quality teaching resources, students can experience high-quality teaching resources according to their own interests, consolidate basic knowledge and broaden the scope of knowledge at the same time14, 15. Online teaching supports a variety of teaching modes. According to the characteristics of the course, teachers can design personalized teaching plans, break the traditional "cramming" teaching mode, adopt the teaching mode of "student-led, teacher-guided", and use CBL, PBL and other teaching methods for case discussion, which requires students to systematically analyze, examine, diagnose and treat a disease with complete clinical thinking, so as to cultivate students' interest in learning and train the clinical thinking of medical students16. Online teaching pays more attention to cultivating medical students' ability of independent thinking and independent learning, and guides students to change their role from "want me to learn" to "I want to learn"13. Through the learning tasks published by teachers online, combined with teaching videos, students can find out and fill gaps through autonomous learning and literature review, so as to master relevant knowledge points more effectively. During the epidemic prevention and control period, online teaching has become the most effective measure in this special period to reduce population flow and block the spread of the epidemic while ensuring the teaching progress.
Time is tight, the task is heavy, and most teachers lack online teaching experience and can not effectively integrate various learning resources, resulting in online teaching becoming a teaching mode of "voice or video + PPT". Due to the lack of clinical practice, oral teaching of basic knowledge and clinical experience is difficult to achieve the ideal teaching effect7, 17, 18. For interns and regular trainees, the training of professional qualities such as clinical skills is more important, and online teaching is difficult to achieve19,20. During the post epidemic period, medical colleges and universities responded to the call of the Ministry of education to carry out online teaching. However, due to the surge in the number of users, the servers of various teaching platforms are unstable, and it is difficult to form an effective learning environment stably. At present, a complete online teaching evaluation and assessment system has not been formed. Teachers cannot effectively control students' learning status. Some students cannot interact effectively with teachers and learn effectively due to their low self-discipline. Therefore, there will be a "Matthew effect" in which the superior is better and the weak is weaker. In addition, for some students in remote and poor areas, due to the limitations of economic conditions, the flow cost of online teaching will undoubtedly increase their living burden.
In 2010, the state required: "strengthen the construction of network teaching resource system and introduce international high-quality digital teaching resources; Develop e-learning courses and establish digital libraries and virtual laboratories; Establish an open and flexible public service platform for educational resources to promote the popularization and sharing of high-quality educational resources ". In 2015, the “Internet plus” became a national strategy of China. The new concept of "Internet plus education" was gradually advancing in the field of education. In February 2020, in order to ensure the learning and living needs of students with financial difficulties during the epidemic, medical colleges and universities actively gave subsidies to students with financial difficulties to solve their urgent needs. Since the 21st century, the powerful connectivity realized by modern digital tools has brought extraordinary convenience around the world. Social media has created a huge global network and has great power to quickly spread information21. Therefore, the rapid development of the Internet and the popularity of mobile communication equipment have also brought great convenience to medical network teaching.
The epidemic situation is unstable. At this stage, China is facing a complex situation of multi-source and multi-point epidemic in a short time. The normal teaching plans of colleges and universities everywhere are frequently disrupted. Teachers need to learn and master online teaching technology in a short time, be familiar with relevant teaching platforms, and rearrange teaching content and progress. This is a challenge for teachers and students. In addition, the schedule of online teaching needs to be adjusted at any time according to the changes of the epidemic situation, but the changes of the epidemic situation are uncertain, resulting in uncertainty in the actual operation of online teaching during this period. Medicine is a science based on practice, and its particularity exists in teaching. If some medical materials, such as anatomical pictures, clinical operations or surgical videos, are leaked to the public platform, it will seriously affect the network environment, not only cause public discomfort, but also cause the disclosure of patients' privacy, which is a severe test for Internet security22.