This paper investigates the influences of biomass energy use, fossil fuel, income, trade openness, and population growth on carbon dioxide (C02) emission in African countries over the 1980–2014 period.
The study employs pool mean group (PMG), mean group (MG), and dynamic fixed effect (DFE) estimators that resolve the issue of heterogeneity bias. In addition, it employs weighted fully modified ordinary least squares, and weighted dynamic ordinary least squares to validate the robustness of PMG, MG, and DFE estimates.
The results from each of these estimators complement one another and both suggest that the relation of fossil fuel use and population growth with CO2 emission is positively significant. Conversely, we find that trade openness and biomass energy use exert significant negative impact on carbon emission. Additionally, the dampening effect of biomass energy utilization on CO2 emission helps to validate Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis for those countries.
The role of biomass in determining environmental quality has been investigated by studies for a few developed economies and developing countries without reaching consensus in terms of their findings. As indicated by the literature, such study is wanting in African countries, and this motivates the present study. More so, with focus on the role of biomass in CO2 emission, this study first considers sixteen countries from all the regions on the African continent. The findings of this study will assist policy makers in making useful environmental and sustainable energy policy that can be embraced as regional policy.