CD 14 is an important pattern recognition receptor having innate immune function and has antibacterial activity. It binds with LPS of gram-negative bacteria, arachidonic acid, and lipoteichoic acid. Being a receptor, it binds with the pathogen with the help of other cytokines. Mutations in CD14 affect the binding ability which in turn affects the biological potentiality.
The present study was conducted on 228 nos. of buffaloes pertaining to four different breeds as Murrah, Mehsana, Surti and Bhadawari. CD14 gene was characterized and polymorphism was detected through Single nucleotide conformation polymorphism. Association study was conducted for different variants of CD14 with mastitis in buffalo, detected through somatic cell count, california mastitis test.
Eight variants of CD14 were detected and mutational hotspots were detected in bubaline CD14 with 58 number of non-synonymous SNP, out of which 18 were observed to be deleterious and 34 as thermodynamically unstable. In the present study, we had detected the mutations in CD14 gene and its association with the somatic cell score and other indicators for mastitis. In-silico studies were conducted to understand the molecular mechanism how the mutations affect the biological potentiality by analyzing different domains and structural analysis along with various post-translational modification sites.
Deleterious mutations were observed in CD14 gene which have significant effect on mastitis of buffalo. It may be employed for marker assisted selection, therapeutic application of recombinant CD14, gene therapy, transgenic animal production with wild type CD14 resistant to mastitis as future strategy.