Diabetic foot is an underestimated and redoubtable diabetes complication. The aims of our study were to assess diabetic foot ulcer risk factors according to International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot (IWGDF) classification, stratify patients into risk categories and identify factors associated with higher-risk grade
Cross-sectional setting over a period of 07 months, patients were randomly selected from the diabetic outpatients attending our unit of diabetology. Questionnaire and clinical examination were made by the same physician. Patients free of active foot ulcer were included.
Among 230 patients evaluated, 10 had an active foot ulcer and were excluded. Five patients (2.27%) had a history of foot ulcer and 3(1.36%) had a lower-limb amputation. Sensory neuropathy, as measured by the 5.07(10g) Semmes-Weinstein monofilament testing, was present in 23.63% of patients, whereas 36.82% had a peripheral arterial disease based on clinical findings, and 43.63% had foot deformities. According to the IWGDF classification, Group 0: 72.72%, Group 1: 5.9%, Group 2: 17.73% and Group 3: 3.63%. After univariate analysis, patients in higher–risk groups were significantly more often female, had higher age and BMI, longer diabetes duration, elevated waist circumference, low school level, retinopathy and hyperkeratosis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified 3 significant independent factors associated with high-risk groups: retinopathy (OR=2.529, CI95 [1.131-5.655], p=0.024), hyperkeratosis (OR=2.658, CI95 [1.222-5.783], p=0.014) and school level (OR=0.489, CI95 [0.253-9.44], p=0.033)
Risk factors for foot ulceration were rather common in diabetic outpatients. The screening of diabetic patients at risk for foot ulceration should start early, integrated with sustainable patient education