The result of the present study showed that BRV was highly prevalent, 3.64% (4/110) than BCoV in the study area. There are different rate of BRV infection report in many parts of the world at different times. Eventhough lesser, this result is nearly in agreement with  in Costa who reported a prevalence of 7%. Nevertheless, the rate was inconsistent with 25.1% by  in Brazil, 20.2% by  in Brazil, 22.8% by  in Tunisia, 21.84% by  (Akam et al., 2011) in Algeria, 15.68% by  in India and 15.5% by  (Al-Robaiee and Al-Farwachi, 2013) in Iraq. Also much higher rate of 34%, 42%, 42.7% and 50% was reported by ;  (Reynolds et al., 1986) in England,  in Spain and  in Scotland respectively. In Ethiopia one study done by  revealed 16.7% which was higher than the current finding. This variation may be due to the lower sample size of this study and difference in the test techniques employed.
On the other hand, BCoV was detected at a rate of 0.9% (in only 1/110 samples). This result is lesser when compared to those reported by   in India, ; ;  and  that was 4%, 4.76%, 7.34%, 9%, 11.76% and 14% respectively. Much higher rate 19% and 21.6% was also reported by  in Brazil and  in Australia respectively. But almost in agreement with 1.96% (1/51) reported by  in northern Turkey. The variation in prevalence rate among reports may be due to difference in farm management practice, hygienic condition and diagnostic techniques employed ; .
The association of BRV and BCoV infection was found different in different herd and individual level risk factors. Regarding sex, equal number of male (55) and females (55) were sampled in the study and the occurrence of the infections in male (7.3%) is higher than that of in female (1.8%).  and  also reported that as compared to females, male susceptibility for diarrhea was high. This can be explained as size of male at birth is assumed to induce dystocia and consequently decrease colostrum absorption. Plus more care is given to female calves than males because of their economic importance. In contrast, the result reported by  and  showed that the percentage of females affected by rotavirus is higher than male calves.
The prevalence of both BRV and BCoV was high in calves at the age of 11-20days, 3 (7.9%) and 1(2.6%) respectively. This may be due to lack of natural immunity against the two infections and a decrease in passive immunity  ; and . In calves’ 1-10days of age, only infection by rotavirus was detected 1(3.2%). This may be because there was a good neonatal calf care given at this age range in the study area. None of the pathogens were detected in the third age group, 21-30days. These may be justified as: increased natural immunity against the pathogens as calves reach and become beyond 3 weeks old ; .
All the positive samples for both pathogens were detected from the diarrheic calves (9.5% for BRV and 2.4% for BCoV). The prevalence was significantly different between diarrheic and non-diarrheic calves and its consistency. None of the non-diarrheic calves showed infection by both pathogens in the present study. A study done elsewhere by  and  revealed no rota and coronavirus antigen detection in non-diarrheic calves respectively. Moreover, the consistency of diarrhea for the positive samples was watery for all rota positives and smooth for the corona positive which is due to effect of the viruses mainly on the small intestine villi ;.
The time for clostrum feeding, feeding types and its amount were also considered in this study. The prevalence of BCoV (2%) and BRV (4.1%) was high in herds that feed colostrum with bucket than suckling. This may be due to contamination of buckets with calf feces that also contaminate colostrum while feeding calves. Calves getting colostrum above 2hrs had shown a high prevalence rate of 22.2% for rotavirus while 5.3% prevalence rate for coronavirus was detected in calf feeding within 1-2hrs in the herd. This may be due to: decline in immunoglobulin transfer across the gut epithelium as the timing increases as well as less frequent adequate colostrum feeding by the farms within the first 12 hours postpartum (even after the first colostrum feeding). A high infection rate of 8.3% and 4.2% for BRV and BCoV was found in farms that give colostrum below 1litter respectively. This can be justified as low amount of colostrum provision to the calves. Rate of FPT decreases in calves that receive >100gram of colostral IgG and therefore adequate amount of this IgG mass (>100gram IgG) can be achieved if the calf received 4liter of colostrum or minimum of 3liter .
In conclusion, data from this study showed that both BRV as well as BCoV infection were involved in neonatal calf diarrhea. Therefore, it is advisable if: awareness would be created to dairy farm owners and attendants on overall farm management specifically on proper cow-calf management practice in dairy farms, further studies on other (infectious and non-infectious) causes of calf diarrhea would be carried out and proper vaccination program could be designed for protection of calf diarrhea.