Background: Mongolian cattle (MC) is one of an ancient livestock breeds with good economic traits such as adaptation to Mongolian Plateau extreme low temperature in winter, resistant to pathogenic organisms infection and high quality meat. To reveal the molecular mechanism underlying these, the whole genome sequencing and comparative transcriptome sequencing of MC were performed.
Results：By genome sequencing and structure variation analysis, 8 genes related to pathogenic organisms infection, including 4 members of bata-defensins gene family (LAP, DEFB1, DEFB2, and DEFB5), 2 members of interferon (IFN) gene family (IFNW1 and IFNT2) and 2 genes coding for BoLA proteins(Mongolian_cattle_21532 and Mongolian_cattle_19448) were found in MC genome inversion region. By transcriptome-sequencing, it was elucidated that 8 genes (FATP, FABP, PEPCK, SCP-X, ADIPO, FABP1, SCD-1, APO) related to PPARα pathway, 23 genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation and 10 P450 genes (CYP7B1, CYP4V2, CYP3A5, CYP11A1, CYP2C18, CYP2B6, CYP7A1, CYP2R1, CYP2E1, CYP27B1) were significantly up-regulated in winter MC transcriptomes, comparative to summer MC transcriptomes.
Conclusions: Here, we characterized 41 genes implicated in fatty acid metabolism were up-regulated in winter MC transcriptomes. These genes probably account for the MC adaptation to extreme low temperature. At the same time, 8 genes in MC genome inversion region were discovered. And these genes gave clue to the MC resistant to pathogenic organisms infection. In sum, our revealed genes are of important for us to understand the molecular mechanisms of MC to adapt to their environments and valuable for cattle breeding.