Generally, ticks are divided into two large families, Ixodidae (hard ticks) and Argasidae (soft ticks) with various species and genera, are among the most critical obligate ectoparasites of animals, especially livestock and poultry 1. These blood-sucking ectoparasites as pathogenic vectors transmit bacteria, viruses, and protists to hosts, including animals and humans. These pathogens cause various diseases (e.g., bacterial diseases (Q fever, Lyme disease, borreliosis, relapsing fever, and borreliosis), fungal diseases (dermatophilosis), protozoal diseases (babesiosis and theileriosis), and rickettsial diseases (ehrlichiosis, Brazilian spotted fever, anaplasmosis, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever) 2,3. Since sex ratio is a critical parameter determining the status and dynamics of animal populations, studies on sex ratio are vital for understanding the biology of populations and the biology of pathogens. Accordingly, arthropod vectors (e.g., ticks) sex ratio could play different roles in pathogen transmission 4,5.
Although ticks have been known since time immemorial, their importance in causing livestock troubles initiated in the mid-19th century; due to the world population increase and the nutritional needs, the number of livestock through the industry has increased rapidly. At the same time, concerns and issues related to ticks emerged 6. In 1814, piroplasmosis was diagnosed in cattle in the United States, and in 1821 it was discovered that the disease was transmitted to cattle by the ticks' bite called Boophilus annulatus 7. In 1971, Mazloum in Iran conducted studies on the geographical distribution, seasonal activity, preferred ticks hosts, and diseases transmitted to livestock and humans 8. Pourmand et al. have also conducted a study to determine the frequency and species diversity of hard ticks and their sex ratio in equids in Sardasht suburb, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran. Their results indicate the presence of 85.48% male and 14.51% female ticks with the highest frequency of Hyalomma anatolicum (67.74%), H. marginatum (8.01%), Rhipicephalus bursa (21.94%), and Dermacentor marginatus (2.29%), respectively 9. Therefore, considering that tick bites are a manner of transmitting the disease to livestock and poultry, it seems that identifying the dominant ticks by host and sex ratio of ticks can be a practical way to oppose ticks and prevent transmitted diseases by them stop economic failures due to livestock losses. This study aimed to determine the sex and identify ticks in different hosts, including camels, sheep, cattle, dogs, chickens, and pigeons in Tehran province during 2019.