Neurological effects of COVID-19 and long-COVID-19 as well as neuroinvasion by SARS-CoV-2 still pose several questions and are of both clinical and scientific relevance. We described the cellular and molecular effects of the human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) in vitro infection by SARS-CoV-2 to understand the underlying mechanisms of viral transmigration through the Blood-Brain Barrier. Despite the low to non- productive viral replication, SARS-CoV-2-infected cultures displayed increased apoptotic cell death and tight junction protein expression and immunolocalization. Transcriptomic profiling of infected cultures revealed endothelial activation via NF-κB non-canonical pathway, including RELB overexpression, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Additionally, SARS-CoV-2 led to altered secretion of key angiogenic factors and to significant changes in mitochondrial dynamics, with increased mitofusin-2 expression and increased mitochondrial networks. Endothelial activation and remodeling can further contribute to neuroinflammatory processes and lead to further BBB permeability in COVID-19.