Background: COVID-19 is a multi-systemic disease that is highly contagious and pathogenic. The long-term consequences of it are not yet clear, as is whether society and life can return to a healthy state. Long-term assessment of their health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is essential. This study aimed to investigate HRQoL and its risk factors in COVID-19 survivors at a follow-up of 6-month.
Methods: A multicenter cross-sectional survey was conducted among 192 COVID-19 patients with confirmed age ≥ 18 years who were discharged from various hospitals in Wuhan from January to April 2020. The demographic characteristics, clinical characteristics, and laboratory results of the study subjects were obtained from the hospital's medical records. Survivors' HRQoL was assessed using the Short Form 36 (SF-36), cognition was assessed using the ascertain dementia eight-item informant questionnaire (AD8), and survivors' pulmonary function were examined. All participants in this study completed the survey and testing at Hubei Provincial Hospital of Chinese and Western Medicine. SF-36 scores were compared with the Chinese norm, and logistic regression and multivariate analysis were used to investigate the factors affecting HRQoL in COVID-19 survivors.
Results: SF-36 showed significant differences in HRQoL between COVID-19 survivors and the general Chinese population ( P< 0.05).Multiple linear regression demonstrated that age was negatively correlated with physical functioning (PF), role-physical limitation (RP) and social functioning (SF) ( P <0.05). Bodily pain (BP), vitality (VT), SF and role-emotional limitation (RE) were negatively correlated with females ( P <0.05). Length from discharge to follow‐up was positively correlated with PF and RP ( P <0.05). Abnormal cognitive function was negatively correlated with PF, RP, general health (GH), VT, SF, RE and mental health (MH) ( P <0.05). Abnormal Carbon Monoxide Diffusing Capacity (DLCO%<80%) was significantly negatively correlated with PF and SF ( P <0.05).In addition, there was a significant negative correlation between Coronary heart disease and RP, GH, VT and RE ( P <0.05).Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that age(OR 1.032) and AD8 scores (OR 1.203)were risk factors associated with a low physical component summary (PCS) score. Length from discharge to follow‐up (OR 0.971) was the protective factor for PCS score. Abnormal cognitive function (OR 1.543) was a significant determinant associated with a mental component summary (MCS)<50 in COVID-19 patients.
Conclusions: The HRQoL of COVID-19 survivors remains to be improved at six-month follow-up. Future studies should track HRQoL in older adults, women, patients with abnormal DLCO, and abnormal cognitive function for a long time and provide them with rehabilitation advice and guidance.