1.1. Background of the Study
Soils provide mechanical support to plants from which they extract nutrients. Soil provides shelters for several animal types, from invertebrates like worms and insects up to mammals like rabbits, moles, foxes, and badgers. It also provides habitats colonized by a staggering sort of microorganisms. These sorts of life interact with each other and also interact with the soil to make continually changing conditions .
Soil fertility, or its capacity to complement natural and agricultural plants, depends upon three interacting and mutually dependent components: physical fertility, chemical fertility, and biological fertility. Physical fertility refers to the physical properties of a soil, such as its structure, texture, and ability to absorb and retain water and root penetration. Chemical fertility involves nutrient levels and therefore the presence of chemical conditions like acidity, alkalinity, and salinity which will be harmful or toxic to the plant. Biological fertility refers to the organisms that are found in the soil and interact with the opposite components. .
A fertile soil supports a diverse range of creatures, all of which are involved in critical processes. In quest of dead plant material, earthworms and insect larvae burrow through the uppermost soil layers. Their channels aerate the land, and their pores and passages are sponge-like in their ability to absorb water. Plant litter is degraded by springtails, mites, and millipedes. Microorganisms also convert animal and plant waste into useful organic stuff. Finally, predatory mites, centipedes, beetles, fungi, and bacteria reduce organic leftovers into chemical ingredients, and predatory mites, centipedes, beetles, fungi, and bacteria manage organisms before they become hazardous .
Soil fungi can grow during a wide selection of soil pH but their population is more under acidic conditions due to severe competition with bacteria at neutral pH. A majority of fungi are aerobic and like to grow at optimum soil moisture . They are very successful inhabitants of soil, thanks to their high plasticity and their capacity to adopt various forms in response to adverse or unfavorable conditions. In addition, due to their ability to supply a good sort of extracellular enzymes, they're ready to break down all types of organic matter, decomposing soil components and thereby regulating the balance of carbon and nutrient. Fungi convert dead organic matter into biomass, CO2, and organic acids. Many species of fungi possess the power to act as an efficient bio sorbent of toxic metals like cadmium, copper, mercury, lead, and zinc, by accumulating them in their fruiting body. Even though these components may limit their growth and reproduction 
Rhizospheric fungi are an effective and environmentally friendly way to improve plant development and control a variety of plant diseases. The fungal associations with plants influence the first and secondary metabolism of plants in the least developmental stages . According to Taddesse , Coffee and shade trees are symbiotically related to various microorganisms in their rhizosphere, the foremost important of which is the association of the roots with a certain group of fungi referred to as mycorrhiza. Mycorrhizal fungi are the sole one among the innumerable organisms that live in soil that gives an immediate link between plant root and soil matrix. Many studies have revealed the occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal propagules in coffee soils, enhanced, growth, and increase in P and Zn uptake of young coffee seedlings in nursery conditions.
To date, information regarding densities and identification of soil microorganisms in the southwestern part of Ethiopia is extremely very scanty. The most focus of this study is, therefore, to identify soil fungi of Mizan Tepi University, Tepi campus.
1.2. Statement of the Problem
Fungi have a role in the breakdown of organic matter and the delivery of nutrients to plants. Their role in plant defense against pathogenic microbes as biological agents, which has an impact on soil health, is critical. As a result, fungal populations must be identified to ascertain the roles they play in soil quality and plant health .
Because Ethiopia's economy is based on agriculture, soil biology and soil microorganism must be thoroughly researched to enhance the application of beneficial soil microorganisms. But in the southwest part of the country effort spent on identifying soil microorganisms is very low. Similarly, no previous research has been done on determining soil fungi of the Tepi campus even at the genus level. In line with this, the present study was intended to answer the following question:
- Which fungi genus is highly prevalent on the campus?
- Which site of the campus is rich with fungi diversity?
- What are the factors that determine the prevalence of fungi?
1.3 Objective of the Study
1.3.1 General objective
The main objective of this research work was to isolate and identify fungi from the soil of different ecological niches of the Tepi campus
1.3.2 Specific objectives
The specific objectives of the research are:
- To determine the highly prevalent soil fungi genus.
- To identify the site of the campus where more fungi genera are found.
- To determine the factors that affect the prevalence of fungi.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The results of this investigation can offer baseline information on the campus's soil fungi. Furthermore, the research could be crucial in determining the factors that influence the prevalence of fungi. Because different types of soil fungi and the factors that control their existence also have an impact on grown plants' overall growth, the study has a significant positive impact on the campus.