In order to prevent the microwave leakage and mutual interference, more and more microwave absorbing devices are added into the design of electronic products to ensure its routine operation. In this work, we have successfully prepared MoS2/TiO2/Ti3C2Tx hierarchical composites by one-pot hydrothermal method and focused on the relationship between structures and electromagnetic absorbing properties. Supported by comprehensive characterizations, MoS2 nanosheets were proved to be anchored on the surface and interlayer of Ti3C2Tx through a hydrothermal process. Additionally, TiO2 nanoparticles were obtained in situ. Due to these hierarchical structures, the MoS2/TiO2/Ti3C2Tx composites showed greatly enhanced microwave absorbing performance. The MoS2/TiO2/Ti3C2Tx composites exhibit a maximum reflection loss value of −33.5 dB at 10.24 GHz and the effective absorption bandwidth covers 3.1 GHz (13.9–17 GHz) at the thickness of 1.0 mm, implying the features of wide frequency and light weight. This work in the hierarchical structure MoS2/TiO2/Ti3C2Tx composites opens a promising door to the exploration of constructing extraordinary electromagnetic wave absorbents.