Background: Although dexmedetomidine (Dex) is known to reduce bispectral index (BIS) values and propofol dosage, there is little information regarding raw electroencephalography (EEG) changes related to Dex deepening of propofol general anesthesia (GA). This study investigated Dex effects on propofol GA via analysis of EEG changes.
Methods: A study cohort of 21 surgical patients (age range, 20–60 years) categorized asASA (American Society ofAnesthesiologists) class I or II were enrolled. We used time-varying spectral and bicoherence methods to compare electroencephalogram signatures 5 min before versus 10 min after intravenous Dex injection under propofol GA. Means and medians are reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and inter-quartile ranges (IQRs), respectively.
Results: Dex augmented the slow waves power and theta (θ) oscillation bicoherence peak from a mean (95% CI) of 22.1% (19.0, 25.2) to 25.2% (21.8, 28.6). Meanwhile, Dex reduced alpha (α) peak power and bicoherence from 3.5 dB (1.0, 6.0) and 41.5% (34.0, 49.0) to 1.7 dB (-0.6, 4.0) and 35.4% (29.0, 41.8), respectively, while diminishing the median frequency of α oscillation peak values and the mean frequency of α peaks in bicoherence spectra from 12.0 Hz (IQR: 11.2, 12.6) and 11.7 Hz (11.3, 12.2) to 11.1 Hz (IQR: 10.3, 11.8) Hz and 11.2 Hz (10.9, 11.6),respectively.
Conclusions: Profound EEG changes support the supposition that Dex enhances
propofol-induced GA from a moderate to a deeper state. The present findings provide a theoretical basis and reference regarding protocols aimed at reducing anesthetic/sedative dosage while maintaining sufficient depth of GA.
Clinical trial registration: ChiCTR, ChiCTR1900026955, Registered 27 October 2019, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=44495