Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata ) is an important grain and fodder crop in arid and semi-arid regions of Africa, Asia, and South America, where the cowpea seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus , is a serious post-harvest pest. Development of cultivars resistant to C. maculatus population growth in storage could increase grain yield and quality and reduce reliance on insecticides. Here, we use a MAGIC (multi-parent, advanced-generation intercross) population of cowpea consisting of 305 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) to identify genetic variants associated with resistance to seed beetles. Because inferences regarding the genetic basis of resistance may depend on the source of the pest or the assay protocol, we used two divergent geographic populations of C. maculatus and two complementary assays to measure several aspects of resistance. Using polygenic genome-wide association mapping models, we found that the cowpea RILs harbor substantial additive-genetic variation for most resistance measures. Variation in several components of resistance, including larval development time and survival, was largely explained by one or several linked loci on chromosome 5. A second region on chromosome 8 explained increased seed resistance via the induction of early-exiting larvae. Neither of these regions contained genes previously associated with resistance to insects that infest grain legumes. We found some evidence of gene-gene interactions affecting resistance, but epistasis did not contribute substantially to resistance variation in this mapping population. The combination of mostly high heritabilities and a relatively consistent and simple genetic architecture increases the feasibility of breeding for enhanced resistance to C. maculatus.