Laser powder bed fusion is an additive manufacturing technique extensively used for the production of metallic components. Despite this process has reached a status at which parts are produced with mechanical properties comparable to those from conventional production, it is still prone to introduce detrimental tensile residual stresses towards the surfaces along the building direction, implying negative consequences on fatigue life and resistance to crack formations. Laser shock peening (LSP) is a promising method adopted to compensate tensile residual stresses and to introduce beneficial compressive residual stress on the treated surfaces. Using neutron Bragg edge imaging, we perform a parametric study of LSP applied to 316L steel samples produced by laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing. We include in the study the novel 3D-LSP technique, where samples are LSP treated also during the building process, at intermediate build layers. The LSP energy and spot overlap were set to either 1.0 or 1.5 J and 40% or 80% respectively. The results support the use of 3D-LSP treatment with the higher LSP laser energy and overlap applied, which showed a relative increase of surface compressive residual stress (CRS) and CRS depth by 57% and 104% respectively, compared to the conventional LSP treatment.