Infections cause problems in the field of wound management because they form exudates and limit wound improvement, leading to the use of inappropriate sponges. Microorganisms are the main cause of infections [1–4]. The most common infection-producing microorganisms are E. coli and Klebsiella, which are gram-negative bacteria. On entering the human body, these microorganisms quickly establish colonies. These organisms can penetrate the cell nanocomposite in the body, and enter the actual fractions of tissues and cells, leading to internal infections. Therefore, wound dressings are required to prevent these bacterial infections [5–8].
Postoperative adhesion (POA) is a comprehensive inflection of various abnormal tissue hyperplasias, characterized by proliferated fibrous tissues sticking to the nearby normal organs [9–11]. The adhesion bands can take diversified phenotypes ranging from a thin layer of fibrous films between the adjacent tissues to a mixture of fibrous tissues, blood vessels, and nerves [12–14]. Depending on distinct positions and levels of the adhesion, POA may be accompanied with acute complications or be “silent” for several years. These complications, such as chronic pain, dysfunction of adjacent organs, and intestinal obstruction, can reduce the life quality of patients or even become life threatening [15–17]. Even non-sterilized wounds can increase the incidence of infections, leading to exudate formation around the edges. This leads to the use of various polymers, nanocomposite, and cryogels to improve wound dressings. However, previous studies have shown that these materials have limitations such as moisture entry, air passage, biocompatibility, environmental safety, and higher toxicity [18–20]. The use of biological polymers, such as keratin, gelatin, heparin, hyaluronic acid, cellulose, chitosan, chitin, and alginic acid, for wound dressings is less economical. The use of Polymyxin B (PMN) and Glycol (GLY) nanocomposite formulations to heal serious burn and bone tissue injuries has been reported earlier [21–23]. The PMN/GLY nanocomposite is easy to deliver, biocompatible, and biodegradable; additionally, it has low toxicity. The nanocomposite compositions and thin films have antibacterial properties with low damage clearness capacity and high stability [24–26].
Furthermore, several research groups have shown the incorporation of montmorillonite clay into PMN/GLY nanocomposites for wound bandaging applications. Anisha et al. developed chitosan hyaluronic acid-coated LCH nanoparticles (LCH) to counter drug-resistant bacteria for wound bandage applications [27–31]. Chitin-covered LCH have also demonstrated promising wound management. Additionally, the nanocomposite based on alginate-coated PMN/GLY with LCH have shown promising fluid absorption capabilities and antimicrobial properties [32–34].
In the present study, we aimed to develop wound bandages based on PMN/GLY and LCH. The first step involved the fabrication of LCH inside the PMN/GLY matrix (LCH@PMN/GLY) by PMN/GLY as important agents. Further, the surface of LCH was modified by adding PMN/GLY (LCH@PMN/GLY). The GLY, PMN, and LCH@PMN/GLY were subsequently covered with cotton fabrics to generate the final composites. The wound bandaging studies were performed with the GLY, PMN and LCH@PMN/GLY composites utilizing antimicrobials in vitro and in vivo animal models.