Teaching methods are based on principles and a variety of educational methods. They serve as suggestions, instructions, guidance and encouragement to learn. New methods and training materials are developing every day with the research. A lecture-demonstration, a clinical demonstration, a video demonstration or combinations of these methods are used mostly. For the better and quality patient care, the nurses should learn the nursing theories and clinical practice as it is updating with the time. Training programs are, therefore, essential in order to close the gap between theory and practice.
This study aimed to evaluate whether nursing students could learn and retain the theoretical aspects of oral medication administration when taught using a video demonstration compared with the conventional face-to-face teaching method. The findings of the study indicated that there was a statistically significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores of both video demonstration and lecture-demonstration method [(t = -4.533, p < 0.001) and (t=-4.208, p < 0.001)]. This indicates that both the methods were found equally useful in enhancing the knowledge of oral medication administration of nursing students.
Similar to the findings of the present study, another study which was done to examine the effectiveness of video teaching over lecture-demonstration in increasing knowledge and skill of nursing students on antenatal examination. It has discovered that there was a significant difference in the pre-test and post-test knowledge scores within experimental and control groups and there was gaining knowledge in every area in both groups. However, some findings were inconsistent with our study that there was no significant difference in pre and post-test knowledge scores between groups. Hence this study has concluded that video teaching is an effective method of teaching the students (5).
The current study findings were similar to a prospective study done in the University of London to assess the relative effectiveness of the two approaches of video demonstration and lecture-demonstration teaching methods for orthodontic auxiliary training. They found that video teaching and lecturing were equally effective with video achieving slightly better results (6). Similarly, another study was done to compare two forms of teaching methods such as video and live lecture for education in clinical periodontology resulted that the live lecture group performed better than the video group during the in-depth post‐test assessment and more students favoured for video method. At the same time, most of the students favoured an ultimate combination of video and lecture also (7).
A systematic review was conducted to identify teaching methods of medication administration safety of nursing undergraduates using four electronic databases. The three methods identified were: simulation experience, use of technology and online learning. However, they insisted that those three methods cannot be implemented in all the nursing programmes, and the teachers should pay attention to preparing and confirming classroom-based teaching methods. Furthermore, it was suggested to conduct future studies on developing tools considering psychological aspects to assess nursing students' compliance on medication administration safety (8).
A quasi-experimental study on obstetrical palpation was conducted using 60 third-year nursing students in India. The students were divided into an experimental group (video‑assisted teaching program) and a control group (traditional demonstration). There was a statistically significant difference between the pre-test and post-test marks in both groups. However, the traditional demonstration group achieved more marks for the post-test than the people in the video-assisted teaching programme. Therefore, it was concluded that the traditional demonstration method is more efficient in the competency development and adding of blended teaching technique is also essential (9).
A two-group quasi-experimental study was conducted on 165 baccalaureate nursing students to assess the effect of a video-based case study over a written case study. The outcome measures were student satisfaction, self-confidence, and knowledge. According to the findings, the video-based learners gained higher scores for knowledge testing, compared to the written case study group of learners. There was a significant improvement in student satisfaction and self – confidence in both groups. This study suggested that video-based education method can be used as an additional method to improve classroom teaching (10).
Despite the positive perceptions, our students reported regarding the use of videos during the skills practice class, and they preferred the conventional teaching of skills practice. This project has several limitations. The current study used a small convenience sample from a limited target population of nursing students. If it has done on a larger sample, we could obtain a different result. Another drawback was that there could be contamination as the post-test was done eight days later. It should have been done on the same day after teaching and repeated on the 8th day.