Changbai Mountain area in China is an important mineral water storage and development area. The hydrochemical composition of mineral water is the decisive factor for mineral-water quality. Therefore, it is necessary to study the hydrochemical characteristics and genesis of mineral water in Changbai Mountain area. Considering the integrity of basin and groundwater system, the study area was classified into three areas where mineral springs are densely distributed. For these areas, according to the mineral water parameter contents, the springs are further classified into single-type (metasilicic acid) mineral spring and compound mineral spring. By examining 74 mineral water samples collected from 2018 to 2020, the characteristics and formation mechanism of the hydrochemical components of the spring water were analyzed by mathematical statistics, model construction, cluster analysis, and principal component analysis. The results show that the formation of single-type mineral spring is controlled by rock weathering; compound mineral springs are the product of CO2-rich, weakly acidic, confined hot groundwater with high salinity and its mixing with shallow groundwater as it rises along the fracture. Volcanic geological process greatly influence the formation of the hydrochemical components of mineral springs on the North slope of Changbai Mountain. The mineral springs on the Longgang Mountain are greatly affected by human activities. The results of cluster analysis only considering hydrochemical components are consistent with the classification of the areas with concentrated distributions of mineral springs as determined by hydrogeological and geomorphological studies. The results of this study are useful for understanding the distribution, hydrochemical characteristics, and formation mechanism of mineral springs in Changbai Mountain area of China and provide the theoretical basis for the protection and development of mineral spring water.