To study the characteristics of light and dark adaptation in tunnel portal sections and to determine the influencing factors of light-dark vision adaptation, basic tunnel lighting and linear design data are obtained. In this paper, we use a light-shielded tent to simulate the dark environment of a tunnel in experiments, observe the driver recognition time of target objects during the light-dark adaptation process, and analyze the light-dark adaptation time of human vision. Based on a large number of experimental data, we examined the relationship between age, gender, illuminance and light and dark adaptation times and established a model of the relationship between age, illuminance and light and dark adaptation times. The experimental results revealed that the dark adaptation time is generally longer than the light adaptation time. The dark adaptation time is positively related to age and basically exhibits a cubic relationship. There is no significant correlation between the light adaptation time and age, but the overall trend is that the light adaptation time gradually increases with increasing age. There is no correlation between gender and light and dark adaptation times, but there is a notable correlation between the light and dark adaptation times and illuminance. When the illuminance ranges from 11000-13000 lux, the light and dark adaptation times are the longest.