Background: Although surgery is the definitive curative treatment for biliary tract cancer (BTC), outcomes after surgery alone have not been satisfactory. Adjuvant therapy with S-1 may improve survival in patients with BTC. This study examined the safety and efficacy of 1 year adjuvant S-1 therapy for BTC in a multi-institutional trial.
Methods: The inclusion criteria were as follows: histologically proven BTC, ECOG performance status 0 or 1, R0 or R1 surgery performed, cancer classified as Stage IB to III. Within 10 weeks post-surgery, a 42-day cycle of treatment with S-1 (80 mg/m2/day orally twice daily on days 1–28 of each cycle) was initiated and continued up to 1 year post surgery. The primary endpoint was adjuvant therapy completion rate. The secondary endpoints were toxicities, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS).
Results: Overall, 46 patients met the inclusion criteria of whom 19 had extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, 10 had gallbladder carcinoma, 9 had ampullary carcinoma, and 8 had intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Overall, 25 patients completed adjuvant chemotherapy, with a 54.3% completion rate while the completion rate without recurrence during the 1 year administration was 62.5%. Seven patients (15%) experienced adverse events (grade 3/4). The median number of courses administered was 7.5. Thirteen patients needed dose reduction or temporal therapy withdrawal. OS and DFS rates at 1/2 years were 91.2/80.0% and 84.3/77.2%, respectively. Among patients who were administered S-1 more than 3 courses, only one case discontinued due to adverse events.
Conclusions: One-year administration of adjuvant S-1 therapy for resected BTC was feasible and may be a promising treatment for those with resected BTC. Now, a randomized trial to determine the optimal duration of S-1 is ongoing.
Trial registration: UMIN-CTR, UMIN000009029. Registered 5 October 2012-Retrospectively registered, https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr_e/ctr_view.cgi?recptno=R000009347)