Atmospheric transport is critical to dispersal of microorganisms between habitats and this underpins resilience in terrestrial and marine ecosystems globally. A key unresolved question is whether microorganisms assemble to form a taxonomically distinct, geographically variable, and functionally adapted atmospheric microbiome. Here we characterised globalscale patterns of microbial taxonomic and functional diversity in air within and above the atmospheric boundary layer and in underlying soils. Bacterial and fungal assemblages in air were taxonomically structured and deviated significantly from purely stochastic assembly. Patterns differed with location and reflected underlying surface cover and environmental filtering. Source-tracking indicated a complex recruitment process involving local soils plus globally distributed inputs from drylands and the phyllosphere. Assemblages displayed stressresponse and metabolic traits relevant to survival in air, and taxonomic and functional diversity were correlated with macroclimate and atmospheric variables. Our findings highlight complexity in the atmospheric microbiome that is key to understanding regional and global ecosystem connectivity.